Effects of Powdered Stem Bark of Terminalia avicennioides Made as Dietary Feed Fed to Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei, on Liver Function

Main Article Content

Afolabi Owoloye
Olusegun Matthew Akanbi
Oluwafemi Shittu Bakare


Aim: This study aimed to investigate the antiplasmodial activity and effect of stem bark of Terminalia avicennioides made as dietary feed fed to mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, on some serum biochemistry.

Methodology: Twenty (20) mice were divided into four groups. Group 1 was not infected with Plasmodium berghei (normal control), Group 2 was infected with P. berghei but not treated (negative control). Group 3 was infected and treated with 5.0 mg/kg of Arthemeter-Lumefantrine (positive control). Groups 4 was infected and fed with treated feed (T. avicennioides). Treatments were carried out for five days. Blood was taken daily from the tail of the mice before treatment for the assessment of parasitaemia. The animals were sacrificed on the fifth day and the whole blood was collected into EDTA bottle. Serum obtained was used to assay for biochemical parameters.

Results: Parasitaemia count was significantly lower (p<0.05) in all the treated groups when compared with the negative control group. The high-density lipoprotein was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the normal control (123.14±3.19) when compared with the positive control (99.18±2.76), negative control (85.29±0.85) and the group treated with T avicennioides (86.14±3.21). The serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase level in the group treated with T. avicennioides (167.90±4.13, 15.87±1.32 and 17.50±1.95) respectively were significantly reduced (p<0.05) when compared with the negative control (197.25±5.44, 20.01±1.32 and 26.71±0.45) respectively. The mean bilirubin and albumin level in the negative control showed no significant difference when compared with the group fed with T. avicennioides.

Conclusion: The study concluded that T. avicennioides have antiplasmodial activity with a mild adverse effect on liver function.

Antiplasmodial, Terminalia avicennioides, arthemeter-lumefantrine, bilirubin, albumin.

Article Details

How to Cite
Owoloye, A., Akanbi, O. M., & Bakare, O. S. (2019). Effects of Powdered Stem Bark of Terminalia avicennioides Made as Dietary Feed Fed to Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei, on Liver Function. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2(4), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i430066
Original Research Article


Snow RW, Amratia P, Kabaria CW, Noor AM, Marsh K. The changing limits and incidence of malaria in Africa. Advanced Parasitology. 2005;78:169–262.

White NJ. Plasmodium knowlesi: the fifth human malaria parasite. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2008;46(2):172–173.

Sutherland CJ, Bismarck D, Mary CO, Teun B. Persistent detection of P. falciparum, P. ovale, P. malariae, P. vivax after ACT Treatment of Asymptomatic Ghanaian School Children. Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 2010;3:45-50.

Tuteja R. Malaria: An overview. FEBS Journal. 2007;274:4670–4679.

Visser BJ, Rosanne WW, Ingeborg MN, Martin PG. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in malaria-a systematic review and metaanalysis. Malaria Journal. 2013; 12:442. Available:http://www.malariajournal.com/co ntent/12/1/442

Sendagire H, Kaddumukasa M, Ndagire D, Aguttu Nassejje CM, Pettersson M, Gote Swedberg G, Kironde F. Rapid increase in resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine-Fansidar in Uganda and the potential of amodiaquine-Fansidar as a better alternative. Acta Tropica. 2005;95 (3):172-182.

Kilama AH. Africa: Africanizing Malaria Research. Africa Focus Bulletin. 2005;051-120.

Diggie E, Asgary R, Gore-Langton G, Nahashon E, Mungai J, Harrison R, Abagira A, Eves K, Grigoryan Z, Soti D, Juma E, Allan R. Perceptions of Malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practices among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, Northeastern Province, Kenya. Malaria Journal. 2014;13(1):502.

Happi CT, Gbotosho GO, Folarin OA, Bolaji OM, Sowunmi A, Kyle DE, Milhous M, Wirth DJ, Oduola AMJ. Association between mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and P. falciparum multidrug resistance genes and in vivo amodiaquine resistance in P. falciparum malaria infected children in Nigeria. America Journal Tropical Medicine Hygeine. 2006;75:155-161.

Christiana I, Ifeoma O, Mercy A, Martin's E. Antiplasmodial activity of the mixed stem extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and prosopis africana and in vitro evaluation of its tablet dosage form. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 2011;17:419-435.

Akinyemi KO, Oladapo O, Okwara CE, Ibe CC, Fasure KA. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005;5:6.

Akanbi OM. Effect of malaria infection on oxidative stress and lipid profile in pregnant women. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2013;4(3):128-133.

Pereira TB, Silva LF, Amorim RC, Melo NMRS, Souza RCZ, Eberlin MN. In vitro and In vivo anti-malarial activity of limonoids isolated from the residual seed biomass from Carapa guianensis oil production. Malaria of Journal. 2014; 13:317.

Waako PJ, Gumede B, Smith P, Folb PI. The In vitro and In vivo antimalarial activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Momordica foetida. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;99:137-143.

Tona L, Cimanga RK, Mesia K, Musuamba CT, De-Bruyne T, Apers S. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts and fractions from seven medicinal plants used in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;93: 27–32.

Asase A, Oteng-Yeboah AA, Odamtten GT, Simmonds MSJ. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 99:273–279.

Gessler MC, Mysuya DE, Nkunya MHH, Mwasumbi LB, Schar A, Heinrich M, Tanenr M. Traditional healers in Tanzania: the treatment of malaria with plant remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;48:131–144.

Akanbi OM, Omonkhua AA, Cyril-Olutayo CA. Effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Anogeissus leiocarpus on liver function of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plant. 2014;20:350-358.

Abdullahi AL, Agho MO, Amos S, Gamaniel KS, Wambebe C. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of T. avicennioindes roots. Phytotherapy Research. 2001;15:431-434.

Mann A, Banso A, Clifford LC. Antifungal properties of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2008;10:34-38.

Suleiman MM, Mamman M, Aliu OY, Ajanusi JO, Abubakar MS. Anthelmintic effect of extracts of Terminalia avicennioides against experimental nippostrongylosis in rats. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 2005;11(3): 117–126.

Suleiman M, Romanus I, Yusuf S. Gastroprotective effect of crude methanol extract of Terminalia avcennoides in rats. Veterinarski Architecture. 2007;77:345-354.

Akanbi OM, Omonkhua AA, Cyril-Olutayo CM, Fasimoye RY. The antiplasmodial activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus and its effect on oxidative stress and lipid profile in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Parasitology Research. 2012;110:219–226.

Akinyemi KC, Coker AO, Bayangbon C, Oyefolu AOB, Akinade KA, Omonigbehin EO. Antibacterial screening of five Nigerian medicinal plants against S. typhi and S. paratyphi. Journal of Nigeria Infection Control Association. 2000;13(1):15–19.

Tietz NW, Prude EL, Sirgard-Anderson O. In: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. ed. Burtis C. A. and Ashwood, E. R. W. B. Saunders Company, London. 1994;1354-1374.

Christen P, Metzier DE. Aminotransferases. Wiley Interscience Inc., New York. 1985;49–60.

Doumas BT, Biggs HG. Determination of serum albumin: In standard methods of clinical chemistry (Cooper G.A.) Academic press Inc. New York. 1972;1: 175.

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement (NIHCDCS). Triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein and Coronary Heart Disease. Washington D.C. 1992;26-28.

Okeola VO, Adaramoye OA, Nneji CM, Falade CO, Farombi EO, Ademowo OG. Antimalarial and antioxidant activities mentanolic extract of Nigella savita seeds in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelli nigeriansis. Parasitology Research. 2010; 108:1507-1512.

Tolu O, Odunayo R, Ibukun E, Peter O. Medicinal plants useful for Malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, South West Nigeria. African Journal of Traditional, Complexity Alternative Medicine. 2007;4: 191-198.

Krishna AA, Chandrika SK, Manasa A, Shrikant LP. Variation in common lipid parameters in Malaria infected patients. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2009;53:27-274.

White NJ, Ho M. The pathophysiology of Malaria. Advanced Parasitology. 1992;31: 84-167.

Kechrid Z, Kenouz R. Determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in patients with different zinc metabolic disorders. Turkey Journal of Medical Science. 2003; 33:387-391.

Premaratna R, Gunatilake AK, De Silva NR, Tilakaratne Y, Fonseka MM, De Silva HJ. Severe hepatic dysfunction associated with falciparum malaria. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2001;32(1):70-72.

Duru V. Plasmodium falciparum dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failures in Cambodia are associated with mutant K13 parasites presenting high survival rates in novel piperaquine In vitro assays: Retrospective and prospective investigations. BMC Med. 2016;13:305.

Singh R, Kaur M, Arora D. Prospective study of hepatic involvement in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2010;4 (2):2190-2197.

Ghoda MK. Falciparum hepatopathy: A reversible and transient involvement of liver in falciparum malaria. Tropical Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation. 2002; 23(2):70-71.

Kochar DK, Das A, Kochar SK, Saxena V, Sirohi P, Garg S, Gupta V. Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria: A report on serial cases from Bikaner in northwestern India. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2009;80(2):194-198.