The Efficiency and Effectiveness of Open Pollination in Musa Breeding

Main Article Content

Victoria Wilson
Abdou Tenkouano


Aims: This field experiment was conducted to determine if hand and open pollination methods affected performances of Musa progenies from 4x - 2x crosses and to identify promising progenies for recurrent selection.

Study Design: The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with two replications of 6 plants per genotype.

Place and Duration of Study: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) High Rainfall Station, Onne (4º51’N, 7º03’E, 10 m above sea level), in Rivers State, South-south Nigeria for 24 months.

Methodology: Two-month old seedlings of hand pollinated (6 diploid, 6 tetraploid) and open pollinated (6 diploid, 6 tetraploid) progenies, along with parental clones (2x) and (4x) of each genotype were planted at 3 m x 2 m spacing. Data on phenology, vegetative growth, yield and yield characters were collected at flowering and harvest over three crop cycles. Genotypes were partitioned into 5 clusters assayed by means of orthogonal contrasts to compare the performance of progenies from both pollination methods.

Results: Pollination methods produced no significant (P = .05) differences, unfavourable effects or reduction in performance of economically important yield and yield components of 4x and 2x progenies of similar genotype. Some significant (P = .05) linear correlations and relationships between phenological and vegetative traits; and yield and yield components changed with pollination methods and ploidy levels but did not affect final outcomes. Promising open pollinated diploids include the early maturing TMP2x 2829-62OP; and for high yield and yield components measured, TMB2x 8084-2OP and TMP2x 1448-1OP. Promising open pollinated tetraploids include TMP4x 7002-1OP and TMP4x 2796-5OP.

Conclusion: Open pollination did not result in unfavorable effects or reduction in performance of economically important yield and yield components in progenies of similar genotypes. Therefore, open pollination could be considered for Musa breeding. This will reduce cost, labour, time and stress involved in Musa improvement.

Musa progenies, diploid, tetraploid, hand pollination, open pollination.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wilson, V., & Tenkouano, A. (2019). The Efficiency and Effectiveness of Open Pollination in Musa Breeding. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2(4), 1-15.
Original Research Article


Brown A. Tumuhimbise R, Amah D, Uwimana B, Nyine M, Mduma H, Talengera D, Karamura D, Kuriba J, Swennen R. Bananas and plantains (Musa spp). In: Campos, H Caligari, P.D.S. editors genetic improvement of tropical crops. Springer International Publishing AG; 2017.
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-59819-2_7

Swennen R, Vuylsteke D. Breeding black Sigatoka resistant plantains with a wild diploid banana. Tropical Agriculture Trinidad. 1993;70:74-78.

Eldridge K, Davidson L, Harwood C, Vanwyk G. Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Oxford University Press, New York. 1993;288.

Ortiz R. Conventional banana and plantain breeding. Acta Hoticulturae. 2013;986:1-20.

Moncur MW. Techniques for pollinating eucalypts. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 1995;1–19.

Harbard JL, Griffin AR, Espejo J. Mass controlled pollination of Eucalyptus globulus: A practical reality. Canadian Journal of Research. 1999;29:1457–1463.

Vuylsteke D, Swennen R, Ortiz R. Development and performance of Black Sigatoka-resistant tetraploid hybrids of plantain (Musa spp., AAB group). Euphytica. 1993;65:33–42.

Crouch HK, Crouch JH, Madsen S, Vuylsteke D, Ortiz R. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and genotypic diversity among plantain landraces (Musa spp., AAB group). Theor. Appl. Genet. 2000;101: 1056–1065.

Tripathi JN, Muwonge A, Tripathi L. Efficient regeneration and transformation of plantain cv. ‘Gonja manjaya’ (Musa spp. AAB) using embryogenic cell suspensions. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 2012;48:216–224.

Nyine M, Uwimana B, Swennen R, Batte M, Brown A, Hřibová E, Doležel J. Genomic breeding approaches for East African Bananas. In: Abstracts of the plant and animal genome conference XXIV January 08–13, San Diego, CA; 2016

Silva PRO, De Jesus On, Bragança CAD, Haddad F, Amorim EP, Ferreira CF. Development of a thematic collection of Musa spp accessions using SCAR markers for preventive breeding against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense tropical race 4. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: 501776.

Noumbissié GB, Chabannes M, Bakry F, Ricci S, Cardi C, Njembele JC, Yohoume D, Tomekpe K, Iskra-Caruana ML, d’Hont A. Chromosome segregation in an allotetraploid banana hybrid (AAAB) suggests a translocation between the A and B genomes and results in eBSV-free offsprings. Mol Breed. 2016; 36:1–14.

Fortescue JA, Turner DW. Reproductive biology. In: Pillay M, Tenkouano A (eds) Banana breeding: constraints and progress. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 2011;305–331.

Tenkouano A, Ortiz R, Vuylsteke D. Estimating genetic effects in maternal and paternal half-sibs from tetraploid-diploid crosses in Musa spp. Euphytica 2012; 185:295–301.

Wairegi LWI, Van Asten, PJ, Tenywa A, Bekunda M. Abiotic constraints override biotic constraints in East African highland banana systems. Field Crop Res. 2010; 117:146–153.

Van Asten PJA, Fermont AM, Taulya G. Drought is a major yield loss factor for rainfed East African highland banana. Agric Water Manag. 2011;98:541–552

Kumar LP, Selvarajan R, Iskra-Caruana M, Chabannes M, Hanna R. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain. In: Loebenstein G, Katis NI (eds) Advances in virus research. Academic, Burlington. 2015;91; 229–269.

Ortiz R. Plant breeding in the omics era. Springer, New York; 2015.

Umber M, Pichaut J, Farinas B, Laboureau N, Janzac B, Plaisir-Pineau K, Pressat G, Baurens F, Chabannes M, Duroy P, Guiougou C, Delos J, Jenny C, Iskra-Caruana M, Salmon F, Teycheney P. Marker-assisted breeding of Musa balbisiana genitors devoid of infectious endogenous banana streak virus sequences. Mol Breed. 2016;36:1– 11.

Ortiz R. Genetic and phenotypic correlations in plantain-banana euploid hybrids. Plant Breed. 1997d;116:487–491.

Ortiz R. Morphological variation in Musa germplasm. Genet. Resour. Crop Evolution. 1997a;44:393–404.

Ortiz R, Vuylsteke D. Quantitative variation and phenotypic correlations in banana and plantain. Scientia Horticulturae. 1998a;72: 239–253.

Aguilar-Morán JF. Improvement of Cavendish banana cultivars through conventional breeding. Acta Hortic. 2013; 986:205–208.

Tenkouano A, Vuylsteke D, Okoro J, Makumbi D, Swennen R, Ortiz R. Diploid banana hybrids TMB2x5105-1 and TMB2x9128-3 with good combining ability, resistance to black Sigatoka and nematodes. Hort Science. 2003;38:468–472.

Krishnamoorthy V, Kumar N. Preliminary evaluation of diploid banana hybrids for yield potential, male fertility and reaction to Radopholus similis. Plant Gen Res Newsl. 2005;141:39–43.

Nyine M, Uwimana B, Swennen R, Batte M, Brown A, Christelova ÂP. Trait variation and genetic diversity in a banana genomic selection training population. Plos One. 2017;12(6):1-23.

Ortiz R, Swennen R. Review: From crossbreeding to biotechnology-facilitated improvement of banana and plantain. Biotechnology Advances. 2014;32:158-169.

Khan SA, Ahmad H, Khan A, Saeed M. Khan SM, Ahmad B. Using line x tester analysis for earliness and plant height traits in sunflower. Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics. 2009;01(03):117-129.

Acquaah G. Principles of plant genetics and breeding. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford; 2012.

Abass HG, Mahmood A Ali, Saif-ul-Malook Q, Waseem M, Khan NH. Genetic variability for yield, its components and quality traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Nature and Science. 2014;12: 31-35.

Moran GF, Bell JC. Eucalyptus. In: Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding. Tanksley S.D, and Orton T. J (eds); Part B. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 1983;423–441.

Potts B, Potts W, Cauvin B. Inbreeding and interspecific hybridisation in Eucalyptus gunnii. Silvae Genetical. 1987;36(5-6):194-199.

Potts BM, McGowen MH, Williams DR, Suitor S, Jones TH, Gore PL, Vaillancourt RE. Advances in reproductive biology and seed production systems of Eucalyptus: The case of Eucalyptus globulus. South Forests. 2008;70(2):145–154.

Chaix G, Gerber S, Razafimaharo V, Vigneron P, Verhaegen D, Hamon S. Gene flow estimation with microsatellites in a Malagasy seed orchard of Eucalyptus grandis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003;107:705–712.

Jones ME, Shepherd M, Henry R, Delves A. Pollen flow in Eucalyptus grandis determined by paternity analysis using microsatellite markers. Tree Genetics & Genomes. 2008;4(1):37-47.

Horsley TN, Johnson SD, Myburg AA. Comparison of different control-pollination techniques for small-flowered eucalypts. New Forests. 2010;39:75–88.

Tenkouano A, Baiyeri KP, Ortiz R. Phenotypic and genetic correlations in Musa populations in Nigeria. African Crop Science Journal. 2002;10:121–132.

Ortiz R, Vuylsteke D, Ferris RSB, Okoro JU, Guessan N, Hemeng A, Yeboah OB, Afreh-Nuamah K. Developing new plantain varieties for Africa. Plant Varieties and Seeds. 1997;10:39 –57.

Ortiz, R. Plot techniques for assessment of bunch weight in banana trials under two systems of crop management. Agronomy Journal. 1995;87:63–69.

Tenkouano A, Oselebe H, Ortiz R. Selection efficiency in Musa L. under different cropping systems. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2010;4:74–80.

Swennen R. Plantain cultivation under West African conditions: A reference manual. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1990;24.

Ortiz R, Vuylsteke D. Inheritance of dwarfism in plantain (Musa SPP., AAB group). Plant Breeding. 1995;114:466-468.

SAS Institute. SAS Users’ Guide, Release 6.03 Edition Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, U.S.A; 1992.

Ortiz R, Crouch JH. The efficiency of natural and artificial pollinators in plantain (Musa spp. AAB group) hybridization and seed production. Annals of Botany. 1997; 80:693–695.

Craenen K, Ortiz R. Effect of the black sigatoka resistance gene bs1 and ploidy levels in fruit and bunch traits of plantain-banana hybrids. Euphytica. 1996;87:97–101.

Ortiz R. Secondary polyploids, heterosis and evolutionary crop breeding for further improvement of the plantain and banana genome. Theoretical & Applied Genetics. 1997c;94:1113–1120.

Bradshaw JE, Mackay GR. Breeding strategies for clonally propagated potatoes. In: J.E. Bradshaw and G.R. Mackay (ed.) Potato genetics. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 1994;467-497.

Bradshaw JE. Breeding potato as a major staple crop. In: M.S. Kang and P.M. Priyadarshan (ed.) Breeding major food staples. Blackwell Publishing professional, Ames, Iowa, USA. 2007;277-332.