Studies on the Phytochemical Compounds in the Ethanolic Leaf Extract (ELE), Ethanolic Bark Extract (EBE) and Ethanolic Root Extract (ERE) of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae)

Main Article Content

Abdullahi Attah Alfa
Orukotan Abimbola Ayodeji
Goji Anthony Donatus Teru
Kokori Bajeh Tijani

Abstract

The phytochemical compounds of Bridelia ferruginea plant parts was carried out using qualitative method to determine the bioactive compounds present in the plant leave, stem bark and root extracts. The samples was weighed, of which 100 g each of the powder were extracted in solvents (ethanol) 1000 ml macerated and stand for 72 hours. The solvents contained in the maceration bottle was decanted and filtered using a filter paper, the filtration was aided using a suction pump. The filtrate was concentrated using a rotary evaporator and then transferred into thermostatic water cabinet (Temperature was set at 45oC), allowed to dry completely. The plant parts extracts were separately kept in a screw capped bottle for further research. The bioactive compound in the plant parts were detected. The result revealed that Carbohydrates, Saponins, Flavonoids, Tannins, Cardiac Glycosides, fats and oils were present. Alkaloid present in Dragendoff’s test in all plant parts extract but absent in Mayer’s test in only leaf extract. Terpenoids/Steroids present in Liebermann-Burchard’s test in all plant parts extract but absent in Salkowski’s test in only leaf extract. Anthraquinones were absent in all plant parts extracts using Bontrager’s test. Therefore, the presence of these phyto-pharmacological compounds is an indicative that the plant is medicinal and it can be used for the treatment of bacterial and other microbial infections. Further study can be done to separate the individual metabolites to test their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria like bacterial meningitis, tuberculosis and syphilis to determine their potency.

Keywords:
Bridelia ferruginea, ethanolic extracts, medicinal plants, phyto-pharmacological compound, qualitative.

Article Details

How to Cite
Attah Alfa, A., Ayodeji, O., Donatus Teru, G. A., & Bajeh Tijani, K. (2019). Studies on the Phytochemical Compounds in the Ethanolic Leaf Extract (ELE), Ethanolic Bark Extract (EBE) and Ethanolic Root Extract (ERE) of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae). Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2(4), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i430070
Section
Original Research Article

References

Akuodor GC, Mbah CC, Essien AD, Akpan JL, Ezeokpo BC, Iwuanyanwu TC, Osunkwo UA. Ulcer-protective and Antidiarrhoeal Effects of the Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Bridelia ferruginea in Rodents. Pharmacology. 2012;3:591–597.

Olatunji MK, Taofik OS. Effect of waste water treated with methanolic bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea Benth on Rat Kidney and Liver. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Sanitation. 2010;7:14-23.

Ezike AC, Akah PA, Nnamani ME, Okoli CO, Ojike FU, Eze FS, Chime CE, Azosiri IJ. Studies on the antiulcer and gastrointestinal effects of stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea. Journal of Complementary and Integrated Medicine. 2011;8(1).
Article 27.
DOI: 10.2202/1553-3840.1507

Abubakar L, Bagna EA, Dogarai BBS. Effects of Column Fractions of the Leaves Extract of Bridelia ferruginea on Bacteria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2017;10(1):137-141.
ISSN 2006 – 6996

Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. The Scientific World Journal; 2013: Article ID 162750

Olumayokun AO, Mutalib AA, Uchechukwu PO, Bernd LF. Brideliaferruginea produces antineuroinflammatory activity through inhibition of nuclear factor- KappaB and P38 MAPK signaling. Evidence and Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2012;10:1155-1163.

Chikezie PC, Ibegbulem CO, Mbagwu FN Bioactive principles from medicinal plants. Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2015; 9(3):88–115.

Anulika NP, Ignatius EO, Raymond ES, Osasere OI, Abiola AH. The chemistry of natural product: Plant secondary metabolites. International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research. 2016;4(8):1–8.
ISSN 2347‐4289

Adetutu A, Morgan WA, Corcoran O. Antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation activity of crude extract of Bridelia ferruginea leaf, a wound-healing plant of Nigeria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;133(1):116-119.

Akudor GC, Mbah CC, Anyalewechi NA, Idris-Usman M, Iwuanyanwu TC, Osunkwo UA. Pharmacological profile of aqueous extract of Brideliaferruginea stem bark in the relief of pain and fever. Journal of Medical and Plants Research. 2011;5(22): 5366- 5369.

Nene-Bi SA, Zahoui OS, Soro TY, Traore F. Evaluation de leffet dun extrait aqueux de Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) sur les activites spontanee et locomotrice chez le rat. Intl. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2011;04(1):34-41.

Nene-Bi SA, Zahoui OS, Soro TY, Traore F. Diuretic and natriuretic activity of an aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea Benth in normal rats. J. Physio. Pharmacol. 2012;2(10): 349-353.

Omotade IO, Seun OB. In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of B. ferruginea (stem bark). Academic Research International 2. 2012;2:246-251.

Shakya AK. Medicinal plants: Future source of new drugs. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2016;4(4):59‐64.

Kokori BT, Abdullahi AA, Abdullahi AS. Studies on phytochemical, nutraceutical profiles and potential medicinal values of Allium sativum Linn (Lilliaceae) on Bacterial Meningitis. International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal. 2019; 13(2):1-15.
Article no.INDJ.51609, ISSN: 2321-7235, NLM ID: 101632319.

Chukwuma S. Ezeonu and Chigozie M. Ejikeme. Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemical content of indigenous Nigerian softwoods. New Journal of Science. 2016;9
Article ID 5601327.

Aziz MA, Bashar K, Chowdhury MMH, Faruque A. Antibacterial, toxicity and larvicidal potentiality of microcos paniculata barks. Pharmacology Online. Archives. 2015;1:109-120.

Negi JS, Negi PS, Pant GJ, Rawat SM, Negi SK. Naturally occurring saponins: Chemistry and biology. Journal of Poisonous and Medicinal Plant Research. 2013;1(1):001–006.

Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D. and Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013;1(6):168–182.

Temitayo Omotola Akinsete, Bukola Christianah Adebayo-Tayo and Aimbola Olumide Adekanmbi. The phytochemical and Antimicrobial Potentials of the Crude Extract of Bridelia ferruginea and the Extracellular Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017;14(3):1-13.

Yunana BT, Guiyi JC, Bukar BB. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of anti- bacterial activity of Bridelia ferruginea extracts on some clinical isolates. The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2018;7(4): 392-398.
Available:www.phytopharmajournal.com