Modulatory Effects of Some Fruit Juices on Lipid Profile in Rats Fed with High Lipid Diet

Main Article Content

Habibu Tijjani
Enoch Banbilbwa Joel
Carrol Domkat Luka

Abstract

Background: Hyperlipidemia is a predisposing factor to several cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart attacks and others.

Aim: This study investigate the hypolipidemic properties of five selected fruits using rats pre-fed with High Lipid Diet (HLD) under experimental conditions.

Methods: Raw fruit juices from Guava (Psidium guajava), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Banana (Musa acuminata), Apple (Pyrus malus) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) respectively, were administered orally at a dose of 7 ml/kg body weight for 14 days. Sera from the experimental rats were prepared for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) assay, while Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) were computed.

Results: Feeding the experimental rats with High Lipid Diet increased their levels of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and AI by 68.73%, 72.94%, 20.23%, 71.79% and 208.72% respectively with a corresponding decrease in HDL by 29.47%. Pineapple juice significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and AI by 84.44%, 69.39%, 95.19%, 70.15% and 96.99% respectively. Guava, banana and apple treated groups produced 56.72%, 23.88% and 07.46% increase in HDL respectively, with a non-significant (p<0.05) value in pawpaw treated group, when compared to the HLD untreated control. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and steroids in all fruit juices and the absence of balsams and phenols.

Conclusion: Consumption of the selected fruit juices improved lipid profile and reduced the risk associated with hyperlipidemia in experimental rats.

Keywords:
Fruits, hyperlipidemia, lipid profile, phytochemicals, diet, juice.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tijjani, H., Banbilbwa Joel, E., & Luka, C. D. (2020). Modulatory Effects of Some Fruit Juices on Lipid Profile in Rats Fed with High Lipid Diet. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 3(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i230079
Section
Original Research Article

References

Rajeev S. Improve your health with apple, Guava, Mango. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. 2005;22:88-121.

Deneo-pellegrini H, De Stefani E, Ronco A. Vegetables, fruits and risk of colorectal cancer: A case-control study from Uruguay. Nutrition & Cancer. 2006;25(3): 297-304.

Ferree DC, Warrington J. Apples: Botany, production and uses. CABI Publishing; 2000.

Sangeeta A, Pachori SB, Pandey DN, Pant MC. Effects of feeding Pyrus malus (Apple) on serum lipid profile with special reference to high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in normal albino rabbits. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 1990;5(2):91-94.

Shinde S, Chivate N, Kulkarni P, Naikwade N. Hypolipidemic activity of Psidium Guajava Linn leaves extracts in hyperlipidemic rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;5(1):70-72.

Emeruwa AC. Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract. J. Nat. Prod. 1982;45(2):123–127.

Iwu MM. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press; 1993.

Conway P. Tree medicine– A comprehensive guide to the healing power of over 170 trees. Judy Piatkus (Publishers) Ltd; 2001.

Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Murphy R., Nishijima M, Raetaz C, Shimizu T, Spener F, Van Meer G, Wakelam M, Dennis EA. Update of the lipid maps comprehensive classification system for Lipids. Journal of Lipid Research. 2009;50:S9-S14.

Na YY, Hyeung RK, Hae YC, Jae SC. Antihyperlipidemic effect of an Edible brown algae, Ecklonia stolonifera, and its constituents on Poloxamer 407- Induced Hyperlipidemic and Cholesterol-fed rats. Archies of Pharmacal Research. 2008; 31(12):1564-71.

Barness LA, Opitz JM, Gilbert-Barness E. Obesity: Genetic, molecular and environmental aspects. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2007;A143A(24):3016-34.

Gill LS. Carica papaya L. In: Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. Benin City: UNIBEN Press. 2002;57-58.

Luka CD, Idoko KM, Jawonisi IO. Effect of honey on albino rats fed with high lipid diet. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics. 2010;12:33-36.

Tijjani H, Luka CD. Effects of Afromomum melegueta, Zingiber officinale and Piper nigrumon some biochemical and haematological parameters in rats fed with high lipid diet. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 2013;1(3):61-67.

Edeoga HO, Okwa DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr. J. Bio-Technol. 2005;4(7):685-688.

Hainline A, Cooper GR, Olansky AS. CDC survey of high density lipoprotein cholesterol measurement: A report, center for disease Control publication, Atlanta, GA; 1980.

Fredrickson DS, Levy RI, Lees RS. Fat transport in lipoproteins-An integrated approach to mechanisms and disorders, New England Journal of Medicine. 1967;276:148 –156.

Albers JJ, Warmick GR, Cheung MC. Quantitation of high density lipoproteins. Lipids. 1978;13:926-932.

Farquhar JW, Smith RE, Dempsey ME. The effect of beta sitostrerol on the serum lipids of young men with artherosclerotic heart disease. Circulation. 2006;14:77-82.

Ikeda I, Sugano M. Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant sterols for mass intervention. Current Opinion Lipidol. 1998; 9:527-531.

Mattson FH, Grundy SM, Crouse JR. Optimizing the effect of plant sterols on cholesterol absorption in man. Am. J. Nutr. 2002;35:697-700.

Fuhrman B, Volkora N, Kaplan M, Pressor D, Aitias J, Hayek T, Aviram M. Nutrition. 2002;18:268-275.

Smith TJ, Yang CS. Effects of food phytochemicals or xenobiotic metabolism. In ‘Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention I. Fruits and Vegetables’ (Hauang MT, Osawa T, Ho CT, Rosen RT, eds). 2004;17-48.

Cook NC, Samman S. Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects and dietary sources. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2006;7:66-76.

Manach C, Regerat F, Texier O. Bioavailability, metabolism and physiological impact of 4-oxo-flavonoids. Nutr. Res. 2006;16:517-544.

Xie W, Wang W, Su H, Xing D, Cai G, Du L. Hypolipidemic mechanisms of Ananas comosus L. leaves in mice: Different from fibrates but similar to statins. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007;103:267–74.

Vilasinee H, Anocha U, Noppawan PM, Nuntavan B, Hitoshi S, Angkana H, Chuthamanee S. Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006;103(2):252-260.

Carr AC, Zhu B, Frei B. Potential antiatherogenic mechanisms of ascorbate (vitamin C) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E). Circulation Research. 2000;87:349–354.

Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: The womesn’s health initiative randomized controlled dietary modification trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2006;295(6):655-66.