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To increase the genetic progress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, breeders search for germplasm of high genetic diversity, one of them is the landraces. The present study aimed at evaluating genetic diversity of 20 Egyptian wheat landraces and two cultivars using microsatellite markers (SSRs). Ten SSR markers amplified a total of 27 alleles in the set of 22 wheat accessions, of which 23 alleles (85.2%) were polymorphic. The majority of the markers showed high polymorphism information content (PIC) values (0.67-0.94), indicating the diverse nature of the wheat accessions and/or highly informative SSR markers used in this study. The genotyping data of the SSR markers were used to assess genetic variation in the wheat accessions by dendrogram. The highest genetic distance was found between G21 (Sakha 64; an Egyptian cultivar) and the landrace accession No. 9120 (G11). These two genotypes could be used as parents in a hybridization program followed by selection in the segregating generations, to identify some transgressive segregates of higher grain yield than both parents. The clustering assigned the wheat genotypes into four groups based on SSR markers. The results showed that the studied SSR markers, provided sufficient polymorphism and reproducible fingerprinting profiles for evaluating genetic diversity of wheat landraces. The analyzed wheat landraces showed a good level of genetic diversity at the molecular level. Molecular variation evaluated in this study of wheat landraces can be useful in traditional and molecular breeding programs.
(Accessed on 16 February 2020)
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