Main Article Content
Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and its complications include retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Early detection of the risk factors and management of pre-diabetes can however reduce the risk of developing diabetes-related complications.
Objective: This study was undertaken to assess cardio-metabolic risk factors for diabetes among undergraduate students at KNUST.
Method: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology at Kumasi, from January 2017 to March 2017. Questionnaires were administered to 500 participants (45% males and 55% females) to obtain demographic and anthropometric data, information on physical activity, and knowledge on diabetes. About 5 ml of venous blood was taken from participants after an overnight fast to determine fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid profile.
Results: The mean age of participants were 21±2.40 years and 19.24±2.42 years for male and female respectively. Prevalence rate of pre-diabetes was 5% in this study. Mean values of systolic pressure (p<0.001) and blood glucose level (p=0.042) were significantly higher in men than the females. There was a significant association between the total cholesterol and the fasting blood sugar levels among participants (p=0.045). LDL-cholesterols concentrations were also significantly associated with blood sugar levels among participants (p<0.001). Risk factors such physical exercise (p<0.001) and family history (p<0.001) if diabetes were significantly associated with fasting blood glucose levels of participants. Obesity was no associated with serum glucose levels among participants in this study (p=0.533). HDL-cholesterol was inversely correlated with Fasting blood sugar even though it was no significant (r=-0.240, p=0.430).
Conclusion: The prevalence rate of pre-diabetes was 5% in this study. Education about the disease as well as appropriate modification of lifestyle can help reduce the incidence of diabetes and its associated risk factors.