In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Anti-trypanosomal Activity of Carica papaya Seed Extracts and Fractions in Albino Wister Rats

Main Article Content

H. Kinjir
M. A. Madusolumuo
S. Sarkiyayi


Aims: This study presents baseline data on the In-vitro and In-vivo evaluation of anti-trypanosomal activity of Carica papaya seed extracts and fractions in Albino Wister rats.

Study Design: Mention the design of the study here.

Place and Duration of Study Sample: Department of Biochemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, between June 2009 and July 2010.

Methodology: 56 Wister rats of both sexes were randomly divided into 8 groups (I – VIII) of 7 rats each were used for this study. Four concentrations (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) of different extracts of seed carica papaya were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei In vitro and In vivo. The effect of the extracts was evaluated for trypanocidal activity in rats infected and not infected with the parasite. Administration of the extract and the drugs was orally daily for 5 consecutive days from day 7 of post infection. Level of parasitemia and body weight was taken daily for 21 days.

Results: The extracts inhibited parasite motility and totally eliminated the organisms at the concentrations used In vitro. The extract also showed promising in vivo trypanocidal activity. The observed In vitro and In vivo trypanocidal activities may be due to the presence of bioactive compounds present in the extracts as seen in this study. The extract also improved the observed decreases in haematological parameters of the treated rats, which may be due to their ability to decrease parasite load. The LD50 was estimated to be ≥2,000 mg/Kg (v/v) for acute oral toxicity test (because all the rats survived at the end of the 14-day observation period). This is an indication of very low toxicity, implying that the extract could be administered with some degree of safety. A significant decreased (p<0.05) were observed in weight of rats at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg 400 mg/kg 800 mg/kg negative control and prophylactic at four to eight days of infections, while significantly increased (p<0.05) were observed in weight of rats for berenil control and normal control.

Conclusion: The decrease in weight of rats could be as a result of loss of appetite due to severe fever and also the trypanosome.

Trypanocidal, haematological, infectivity test, Carica papaya, albino rats

Article Details

How to Cite
Kinjir, H., Madusolumuo, M. A., & Sarkiyayi, S. (2020). In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Anti-trypanosomal Activity of Carica papaya Seed Extracts and Fractions in Albino Wister Rats. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 4(2), 13-25.
Original Research Article


WHO. Author. Medicinal plants - guidelines to promote patient safety and plant conservation for a US$ 60 billion industry; 2004.

Available: on 20th November 2018.

Victor AM, Beatty VM, Patricia IK. In vitro effect of aqueous extract and fraction iv portion of ximenia americana stem bark on trypanosoma congolense DNA. Journal of Parasitology. 2014;904318(5)1155-904318.

Getachew A. Trypanosomosis in Ethiopia. Journal of Biol Sci. 2005;4:75-121.

Peter B, Adekunle OS, Wethyton AO, Adetayo FF, Nnaemeka CI. Current analysis of Chemotherapy S trategies for the Treatment of Human Africa Trypanosomiasis, Pathog Globa Health. 2013;107(5):242-252.

Bezie M, Girma M, Dagnachew S, Tadesse D, Tadesse G. African trypanosomes: Virulence factors, pathogenicity and host responses. Journal of Veterinary Advance. 2014;4(11):732-745.

Biu AA, Buratai LB, Ahma AA, Hambali IU, Ngulde SI, Zakariah M, Lawa JR. Photochemistry, toxicity and efficacy of crude aqueous extract of C. papaya leaf against Trypanosomal brucei. Bangladesh. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2016; 14(1):99-102.

Stijlemans B, Vankrunkelsven A, Brys L, Magez S, Baetselier P. Role of iron homeostasis in trypanosomiasis–associated anaemia. Immunobiology. 2008;213:823-835.

Ngozi JN, Akachukwu I, Fidele N-K, Michael UA, Chika JM. Anti trypanosomal activity of nigerian plants and their constituents molecules. Molecule Review. 2015;1420-3049.

Marín PA, Soto-Ospina A. Redox mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi resistance to nitro prodrugs Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. 2020;5(1):1-7.

Legros D, Ollivier G, Gastellu-Etchegorry M, Paquet C, Burri C, Jannin J, Buscher P. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis-Present situation and needs for research and development. The Lancet, Infectious Diseases. 2002;2:437–440.

Mehta K, Patel BN, Jain BK. Phytochemical analysis of leaf extract of phyllanthusfraternus. Research Journal of Recent Sciences. 2013;2:129–140.

Krstin S, Silva H, Peixoto, Wink M. Combinations of alkaloids affecting different molecular targets with the saponin digitonin can synergistically enhance trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology; 2016.

Merschiohann K, Sporer F, Steverding D, Wink M. In vitro Effect of alkaloids on bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei and T. congolense. Planta Med. 2001;67: 623–627.

Hoet S, Pieters L, Muccioli GG, Habib-Jiwan JL, Opperdoes FR, Quetin-Leclercq J. Antitrypanosomal activity of triterpenoids and sterols from the leaves of strychnosspinosa and related compounds. J Nat Prod. 2007;70(8):1360–1363.

Shekins OO, Iliemene U, Timothy T, Liman B, Dayo O. Proximate analysis, phytochemical screening and antitrypanocidal potentials of Bucholzia coriacea in Trypanosoma brucei brucei- infected mice. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2014;9(4):69-77.

Adelanwa MA, Haruna HB. Survey of some plants found in Gurara Local Government area of Niger State IJBR. 2013;5(1):45-53.

Anitha B, Raghu N, Gopenath TS, Karthikeyan M, Gnanasekaran A, Chandrashekrappa GK, Basalingappa KM. Medicinal uses of Carica papaya. Journal of Natural & Ayurvedic Medicine. 2018; 2(6):000144.

Nugroho A, Heryani H, Choi J, Park J. Identification and quantification of flavonoids in Carica papaya leaf and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2017;7(3):208-213.

Das K, Tiwan RKS, Shivasteva DK. Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as anti-microbial agent: Current methods and future trends. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4:104 –111.

Kokate CK, Khandelwal KR, Pawar AP, Gokhale SB. Practical pharmacognosy, (45th Ed.), NiraliPrakashan. 2010;2.5-2.7.

Herbert WJ, Lumsden WHR. Trypanosoma brucei: A rapid "matching" method for estimating the host's parasitemia. Experimental Parasitology. 1976;40:427-431.

Kanadi MA, Alhassan AJ, Ngulari AL, Yaradua AI, Nasir A, Wudil AM. Acute toxity studies and phytochemicals constituents of different solvents extract of Carica papaya seeds. Asian Journal of Resaerch in Botany. 2019;2(3):1-9.

Ogbole E, DashakD. Ab, Nvau JB, Daben MR, Abongaby G.1, Obaloto OB, Oladipo OO, Igweh AC. Phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of the antitrypanosomal action of the methanolic leaf extract of Corym biatorelliana Internationa Journal of Ethnomedicine and Pharmacognosy. 2016;3(1):20-29.

Eze JI, Anosa GN, Ozota CA. In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of Combretum racemosum leaves. African. Journal. Biotechnology. 2012;11:10611-10616.

Ermias M, Getachew T, Tilahum T, Workined S. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of aqueous and methanol leave extract of Clutiaabyssinica against T. congolense. Journal of Pharmacologia. 2015;6(3):79-82.

Wink M, Schmeller T, Latz B. Mode of action of allele chemical; alkaloid intereactions with neuroreceptors, DNA and other molecular target. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 1998;24:1881-1987.

Bezie M, Girma M, Dagnachew S, Tadesse D, Tadesse G. African Trypanosomes: Virulence Factors, Pathogenicity and Host Responses. Journal of Veterinary Advance. 2014;4(11):732-745.

Amisigo CM, Antwi CA, Adjimani JP, Gwira TM. In vitro anti-trypanosomal effects of selected phenolic acids on Trypanosoma brucei. Plos One. 2019; 14(5):21-68.

Albadrani BA. Clinical and hematological study of Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense in cattle in Mosul City, Iraq Res OpinAnim Vet Sci. 2012;2:92-97.

Kennedy PG. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:186–194.

Allam L, Ogwu D, Agbede RIS, Sackey AKB. Hematological and serum biochemical changes in gilts ematological and serum biochemical changes in gilts experimentally infected with experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. Vet. Arhiv. 2011;81:597-609.

Ikede BO, Lule Margaret, Terry RJ. Anaemia in trypanosomiasis: Mechanisms oferythrocyte destruction in mice infected with "Trypanosoma congolense" or "T. brucei". Acta Tropica. 2018;34:53-60.

Chamond N, Cosson A, Blom-Potar MC, Jouvion G, D'Archivio S, Medina M. Trypanosoma vivax Infections: Pushing Ahead with Mouse Models for the Study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, Hematological and Pathological Parameters. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010; 4(8):792.

Tauheed AM, Shittu SH, Suleiman MM, Habibu B, Kawu MU, Kobo PI, Yusuf PO. In vivo ameliorative effects of methanol leaf extract of Lawsoniainermis Linn on experimental Trypanosomacongolense infection in Wistar rats, International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 2016;4(2):33-40.