Effect of Methanolic Extract of Caryota no on Antioxidant Levels in Drosophila melanogaster

Main Article Content

Chinonye A. Maduagwuna
Simeon Omale
Monday A. Etuh
Steven S. Gyang

Abstract

Aims: To investigate the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Caryota no seeds in Drosophila melanogaster (DM).

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration: Sample: African Centre of Excellence for Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State Nigeria between June 2018 and February 2019.                                                                                                                                                    

Methodology: These assays were conducted by exposing 50 flies per vial to the selected concentrations (350 mg, 400 mg and 500 mg) of the extract in 5 independent replicates for seven days while control group received distilled water. The total protein content was then determined from the supernatant of the fly homogenate. The antioxidant activity and levels of GST, CAT and total thiol were then measured. The statistical difference among test groups was presumed at P < .05.                                                                                                        

Results: The methanolic extract of Caryota no caused nonsignificant (P = .33) decrease in total proteins in DM below basal levels in a dose-dependent pattern.  The antioxidant activity showed nonsignificant (P = .28) lowering of the GST activity in DM below control levels. The methanolic extract of CN nonsignificantly (P > .05) increased the levels of catalase (P = .36) and total thiol levels (P = .22).                                                                                                      

Conclusion: It can therefore be concluded that the methanolic extract of Caryota no contains appreciable concentrations of different types of antioxidants. This may provide perspectives for the evaluation and development of effective and safe phytomedicines created from the local biodiversity. 

Keywords:
In vivo, Caryota no, endogenous, exogenous, Drosophila melanogaster.

Article Details

How to Cite
Maduagwuna, C. A., Omale, S., Etuh, M. A., & Gyang, S. S. (2020). Effect of Methanolic Extract of Caryota no on Antioxidant Levels in Drosophila melanogaster. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 4(4), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v4i430114
Section
Original Research Article

References

Mukherji SM, Singh SP. Reaction mechanism in organic chemistry. Madras: Macmillan India Press; 1986.

Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: Properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2015;30(1):11-26.

Sharma AJ. Monosodium glutamate- induced oxidative kidney damage and possible mechanisms: A mini- review. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2015;22: 93. .

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-015-0192-5

Alarco AM, Marcil A, Chen J, Suter B, Thomas D, Whiteway M. Immune-deficient Drosophila melanogaster: A model for the innate immune response to human fungal pathogens. The Journal of Immunology. 2004;172(9):5622-5628.

Tolwinski NS. Introduction: Drosophila – A model system for developmental biology. J. Dev. Biol. 2017;5(3):9.

Abolaji AO, Olaiya CO, Oluwadahunsi OJ, Farombi EO. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 2017;35(3): 164–170.

DOI: 10.1002/cbf.3259

Bayliak MM, Lylyk MP, Maniukh OV, Storey JM, Storey KB, Lushchak VI. Dietary l- arginine accelerates pupation and promotes high protein levels but induces oxidative stress and reduces fecundity and life span in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 2018;188:37–55.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-017-1113-6

Perkhulyn NV, Rovenko BM, Lushchak OV, Storey JM, Storey KB, Lushchak VI. Exposure to sodium molybdate results in mild oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster. Redox Report. 2017;22: 137–146.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1080/13510002.2017.1295898

El-Bab MF, Zaki NS, Mojaddidi MA, Al-Barry M, El-Beshbishy HA. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with oxidative stress and mitigation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Int. J. Gen. Med. 2013;6:799-806.

Hwa LS. Oxidative Stress-mediated chemical modifications to biomacromolecules: Mechanism and implication of modifications to human skin keratins and angiotensin II. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2013;133(10):1055-1063.

Koopman J, Simpson D, Goetghebeur P, Wilson K, Egorova T, Bruhl J, Govaerts R. World Checklist of Cyperacae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. 2005;1-223.

Available: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Accessed 14 October 2014

Vanaja D, Kavitha S. A Study on the Bio-efficacy of Caryota urens L. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017;6(4): 1381-1398.

Virot M, Tomao V, Ginies C, Chemat F. Total lipid extraction of food using d-limonene as an alternative to nhexane. Chromatographia. 2008;68(3-4):311-313.

Etuh MA, Aguiyi JC, Ochala SO, Simeon O, Oyeniran OI, Debola OO, Pam D. The in vivo antioxidant protective activity of Mangifera indica cold aqueous leaf extract in Drosophila Melanogaster. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology. 2019;22(2):1–7.

Oboh G, Ogunsuyi OB, Ojelade MT, Akomolafe SF. Effect of dietary inclusions of bitter kola seed on geotactic behavior and oxidative stress markers in Drosophila melanogaster. Food Science and Nutrition. 2018;6(8):2177–2187.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.782

Abolaji AO, Kamdem JP, Lugokenski TH, Farombi EO, Souza, DO, da Silva Loreto EL, Rocha JBT. Ovotoxicants 4-vinylcyclohexene 1,2-monoepoxide and 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide disrupt redox status and modify different electrophile sensitive target enzymes and genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Redox Biology. 2015;5:328–39.

Habig WH, Jakoby WB. Assays for Differentiation of Glutathione S-Transferases. Methods in Enzymology. 1981;77:398-405.

Ellman GL. Tissue sulfhydryl groups, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1959;82(1):70-77.

Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861 (59)90090-6 13650640

Aebi H. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 1984;105:121–126, 6727660.

Maduagwuna CA, Etuh MA, Omale S, Gyang SS. Antioxidant activity of nHexane extract of Caryota no seed using Drosophila melanogaster model. JABB. 2020;23(4):39-47

Halliwell B. Free Radicals and other reactive species in disease. Nature Encyclopedia of life sciences. 2001;1–7.

Kohen R, Nyska A. Oxidation of biological systems: oxidative stress phenomena, antioxidants, redox reactions, and methods for their quantification. Toxicologic Pathology. 2002;30(6):620–650.

Genestra M. Oxyl radicals, redox-sensitive signalling cascades and antioxidants. Review Cell Signal. 2007;19(9):1807–19.

Rand MD. The growing potential for Drosophila in neurotoxicology. Neuro-toxicology and Teratology. 2010;32:74–83.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2009.06.004

Ellidag HY, Eren E, Aydın O, Akgol E, Yalcınkaya S, Sezer C, et al. Ischemia modified albumin levels and oxidative stress in patients with bladder cancer. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(5): 2759–63.

Yılmaz IA, Akcay TC, Akatay U, Telci A, Ataus S, Yalcin V. Relation between bladder cancer and protein oxidation. Int Urol Nephrol. 2003;35(3):345–50.

Banerjee M, Banerjee N, Ghosh P, Das JK, Basu S, Sarkar AK, States JC, Giri AK. Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activities in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2010;249(1):47-54

Abolaji OA, Kamdem JP, Lugokenski TH, Nascimento TK, Waczuk EP, Farombi EO, Loreto EL, Rocha JB. Involvement of oxidative stress in 4-vinylcyclohexene-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2014;71(6):99–108.

DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.03.014

Manonmani G, Bhavapriya V, Kalpana S, Govindasamy S, Apparanantham T. Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 97(1):39–42.