Invitro Antimalarial and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Frankincense Tree (Boswellia dalzielii) and Leaves Extract of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

Main Article Content

S. Salihu
C. A. Otitolaiye
M. U. Hizbullah


Aim: This research investigated the anti-malarial and antibacterial activities of stem bark methanol extract of Frankincense tree and Kenaf leaves extract on Plasmodium falciparum parasite and against five clinically significant bacteria.

Study Design: Laboratory-experimental design was used for this study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out between September 2019 and November

2019 at Biochemistry and Microbiology laboratories, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methodology: The in vitro antimalarial activity test was conducted by determining the parasitemia for each sample concentration by manual counting on thin Giemsa smears after a 24-hour incubation with the extracts in order to determine the IC50 values. The antibacterial study was done using a modified agar well diffusion technique.

Results: The testing revealed that methanol stem bark extract of Frankincense tree and Kenaf leaves exhibited good and potent (very good) antimalarial activities against P. falciparum respectively with IC50 values of 1.25 μg/mL and 0.16 μg/mL respectively. They also show good inhibitory activities against E.coli but slight inhibitory activities against the other pathogens tested.

Conclusion: The current study indicates that extracts of these plants exhibit anti-malarial and antibacterial activities and may serve as useful sources of drugs for treatment of malaria caused by P. falciparum parasite as well as bacterial infections caused by the tested bacteria.

Antimalaria, Kenaf, frankincense, P. falciparum E. coli, IC50.

Article Details

How to Cite
Salihu, S., Otitolaiye, C. A., & Hizbullah, M. U. (2020). Invitro Antimalarial and Antibacterial Activities of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Frankincense Tree (Boswellia dalzielii) and Leaves Extract of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 5(2), 19-23.
Original Research Article


Berman H, Ford-Gilboe M, Moutrey B, CekicS.Can JNurs Res. 2001;32(4):21-41. PMID: 11928299

World Health Organization, Guidelines for the treatment of Malaria, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland, 3rd edition; 2015.

Baumeister S, Winterberg M, Przyborski JM, Lingelbach K. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Cell biological peculiarities and nutritional consequences. Protoplasma. 2010;240:3–12.

Murray CJ, Rosenfeld LC, Lim SS, Andrews KG, Foreman KJ, Haring D, Fullman N, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Lopez AD. Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: A systematic analysis. Lancet. 2012;379:413-431.

Ifeadike CO, Ironkwe OC, Adogu POU, Nnebu CC, Emelumadu OF, Nwabueze SA. Prevalence and pattern of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers in the FCF Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal. 2012;53(3):166.

Tona L, Cimanga RK, Mesia K, Musuamba CT, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Hernans N, Van Miert S,Pieters L, Totté J, Vlietinck AJ.J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 93(1):27-32.

Wong YH, WY Tan, CP Tan, K Long, KL Nyam. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines; 2014.

Maganha EG, RC Halmenschlager, RM Rosa, JA Henriques, AL Ramos, J. Saffi. Pharmacological evidences for the extracts and secondary metabolites from plants of the genus Hibiscus. Food Chemistry. 2010;118:1–10.

Durgo K, Belščak-Cvitanović A, Stančić A, Franekić J, Komes D. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubusidaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma. J Med Food. 2012;15:258–268.

Agbor GA, JE Oben, JY Ngogang. Haematinic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus.African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(8):833–837.

Kobaisy M, Tellez MR, Webber CL, Dayan FE, Schrader KK, Wedge DE. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(8):3768-71. PMID:11513663

Lawton BP. Hibiscus: Hardy and tropical plants for the garden, 41. Cambridge: Timber Press, Inc. Le Roux, M. 2007. South Africa: Seardel Hopes New Plant will Oust Plastics; 2004.

Agbor AG, JE Oben, OB Brahim, YJ Ngogang. Toxicity Study of Hibiscus cannabinus. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Science. 2004;4(1):27–32.

Banno K, Manfreda J, Walld R, Delaive K, Kryger MH. Sleep. 2006;29(10):1307-11. PMID: 17068984

Assefa D, Shibre T, Asher L, Fekadu A. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;29;12:239. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-12-239. PMID: 23272796

Trager W, Jensen JB. Human malaria parasites in continuous culture. Science. 1976;193:673–675.

Ramalhete C, Da Cruz FP, Lopes, D., Mulhovo S, Rosario VE, Prudencio M, Ferreira M. Triterpenoids as inhibitors of erythrocytic and liver stages of Plasmodium infections. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19,7474–7481

Perez, C., Pauli, M. and Bazerque, P (1990). An antibiotic assay by the agar well diffusion method. Act. Bio. Med. Exp, 15:113-115.

Ferry FS, Tjtraresmi A, Runadi D, Tanti GA, Hamida A, Halimah E, Subarnas A, Budi P, Asih S. In Vitro Antimalarial Activities of D. caulostachyum and G. celebica Leaf Extract against P. falciparum. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2018;10(2):391-393.

Olukemi MA, Kandakai YT, Mawak JD. Antibacterial activity of the stem bark of Boswellidalzielli. Journal of Pharmacology, 2005;3(2):153-157.

Adebajo AO, Adewumi CO, Essein EE. Anti infective agents of higher plants. J of Inter Sym of Med Plants. 1983;5:152-158.