Assessment of Ovarian Integrity, Reproductive Hormones, and Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats Exposed to Tartrazine Azo Dye

Main Article Content

Ibioku Elekima
Okorite L. Horsfall
Ifeanyi G. Adimefe
Sandra I. Ayaugbokor
Helen A. Waribo
Edna O. Nwachuku Nwachuku

Abstract

Aim: To assess the effect of tartrazine at ADI doses on ovarian integrity (the weight and histology of the ovary), reproductive fertility hormones (luteinizing hormones (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL)) and oxidative stress markers (glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) over a period of 30 and 60 days in albino rats.

Study Design: A total of 63 female rats weighing approximately 0.2kg were divided into two phases. In phase 1 (30 days treatment period), the rats were divided into 2 groups - designated tartrazine treated group (TTG1) consisting of 20 rats and control untreated group (CUG1) consisting of 15 rats. In phase 2 (60 days treatment period), the rats were again divided into 2 groups – tartrazine treated group (TTG2) consisting of 16 rats and control untreated group (CUG2) consisting of 12 rats. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 7.5mg/kg of the dye was administered orally while the control groups were given food and water only.

Methodology: At the end of the study, the animals were anaesthetized and 5 mL of whole blood samples was collected by means of cardiac puncture into plain bottles, later spun at 4000 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain serum. The laboratory analysis of LH, FSH and PRL as well as GPX and SOD activity were based on Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Technique using rat-specific kits. Ovarian tissues collected were weighed using electronic balance, washed in normal saline, fixed in 10% formalin saline, embedded in paraffin wax, 5μm thick sections were obtained by rotary microtome,  stained using Haematoxylin & Eosin and examined using digital Olympus microscopic.

Results: Non-significant higher values in the absolute weight of the ovary (WOV), FSH, LH, and PRL while non-significant lower values in GPX and SOD were observed in the treated rats against control rats over a period of 30 and 60 days at P=.05. The histological examination over a period of 30 days did not indicate any alteration but hydropic dilation and structural alterations were seen after 60 days.

Conclusion: The administration of ADI doses of tartrazine over a period of 60 days affected the integrity of the ovary mildly as observed in the histology but did not markly reflect on the biochemical markers in the plasma as well as the weight of the ovary.

Keywords:
Ovarian integrity, hormones, FSH, LH, PRL, anti-oxidants, azo dyes, albino rats.

Article Details

How to Cite
Elekima, I., Horsfall, O. L., Adimefe, I. G., Ayaugbokor, S. I., Waribo, H. A., & Nwachuku, E. O. N. (2020). Assessment of Ovarian Integrity, Reproductive Hormones, and Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats Exposed to Tartrazine Azo Dye. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 5(4), 9-19. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i430136
Section
Original Research Article

References

Elekima I, Nwachuku EO, Okwukwu D, Nwanjo UH, Nduka N. Biochemical and histological changes associated with azo food dye (tartrazine) in male albino rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry. 2019; 5(1):1-14.

Meyer KS, Robert MEP, Lakey FA, Axon RA, Leitch CA, William MF, Jowsey AP, Blain GP, Kass ENG, Wright CM. Hepatic effects of tartrazine (E102) after systemic exposure are independent of oestrogen receptor interactions in the mouse. Toxicological Letters. 2017;273:55-68.

Amin KA, Al-Sheshri FS. Toxicological and safety assessment of tartrazine as a synthetic food additive on health biomarkers: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2018;17(6):139-149.

Zahra N, Kalim I, Saeed MK, Mumtaz Z, Amjad N, Alim N, Hina S, Masood S, Ahmed I, Ashraf M. Effect of natural and synthetic dyes on human health. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2017; 6(10):23- 29.

Okafor SN, Obonga W, Ezeokonkwo MA, Nurudeen J, Orovwigho U, Ahiabuike J. Assessment of health implications of synthetic and natural food colourants – A critical review. Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Journal. 2016; 2347-2352.

Ai-Mashhedy LAM, Fijer AN. Acute toxicity of food additives tartrazine and carmoisine on white male mice. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2016;9(4):364-367.

Ghonimi AMW, Elbaz A. Histological changes of selected wister rat tissues following the ingestion of tartrazine with special emphasis on the protective effect of royal jelly and cod liver oil. Journal of Cytology and Histology. 2015;6(4):346- 347.

Khayyat IL, Essawy EA, Sorour MJ, Soffar A. Sunset yellow and allura red modulate BCL2 and COX2 expression levels and confer stress-mediated renal and hepatic toxicity in male rats. PeerJ. 2018; 6:e5689. Available:https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5689

Elekima I, Nwachukwu EO. Evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of tartrazine (E102) on steroid reproductive hormones of albino rats. Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Endocrinology. 2019;2(1):1-15.

Yang S, Jia ZC, Chen JY, Hu JX, Zhang LS. Toxic effects of tartrazine on reproductive system of male rats. Biomedical Environmental Sciences. 2014; 27(4): 281-288.

Mohamed EG, Abo-laila IM, Masoud MA. Fortification role of curcumin against renal and testicular toxicity of synthetic food dye brilliant blue in rats. Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2019;9(2):1-8.

Boussada M, Lamine J, Bini I, Abidi N, Lasrem M, El-Fazaa S, El-Golli N. Assessment of a sub-chronic consumption of tartrazine (E102) on sperm and oxidative stress features in wistar rat. International Food Research Journal. 2017; 24:1473-1481.

Iroh G, Weli OB, Adele AU, Briggs NO, Waribo AH, Elekima I. Assessment of atherogenic indices and markers of cardiac injury in albino rats orally administered with tartrazine azo dye. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 22(6):51-61.

Filho CJ, Swanson RJ, Varghese A. Overview of the female reproductive system. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 2016; 10(7):3402- 4936.

Department of Health, Australian Government. Toxicity of tartrazine: Scientific review report; 2014. Available: http://www.tge-gov.au (Accessed 28 July, 2019)

Tanaka T. Reproductive and neurobehavioural toxicity study of tartrazine administrated to mice in the diet. Food Chemical Toxicology. 2006; 44:179–187.

Elhkim M, Heraud F. New consideration regarding the risk assessment in tartrazine: An updated toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France. Regulatory Toxicology Pharmacology, 2007; 47:308–316.

Sharma G. Reproductive toxic effect of the synthetic food dye kesari powder in female swiss albino mice (Mus musculus). International Journal of Science, Technology and Management. 2015;1: 153-168.

Mehedi N, Mokrane N, Alami O, Ainad-Tabet S, Zaoui C, Kheroua O, Saidi D. A thirteen week of libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine dye in swiss mice. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2013;12(28): 4519-4529.

Engvall E, Perlmann P. Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immuno-chemistry. 1971; 8(9):871–874.

Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochemica et biophysica Acta, 1979; 582:67-78.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Journal of Biochemistry, 1974;47:469-474.

Stevens A. The haematoxylins. In: Bancroft JD, Stevens A, editors. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 3rd Ed. London, Churchill Livingstone, 1990.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (ANS: 2009): Scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of tartrazine (E 102) on request from the European Commission. European Food Safety Authority Journal. 2009; 7:1331– 1383. 15

Khiralla MG, Salem AS, El-malky AW. Effect of natural and synthetic food colouring agents on the balance of some hormones in rats. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 2015;5(2):88– 97.

Abbas RJ, Al-Hamadavi AH. Effect of chocolate brown TH E155 on some hormones in male albino rats. Eurasian Journal of Bioscience. 2019;13: 485–489.

Amin MAF. Pathophysiological effect of Azorubine on female reproductive organs and hormones in Sprague Dawley rats. International Journal of Health Science. 2018;7(6):57–62.

Saxena B. Ovarian toxicity and oxidative stress induced by food colours in albino rats. International Journal of Science and Nature. 2016;7(4):838– 842.

Amin AK, Hameid II AH, Abd Elsstar HA. Effects of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameter related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48:2994–3999.

Ali AF, Abdelgayed SAS, El-Tawil OS, Bakeer AM. Toxicological and histopathological studies on the effect of tartrazine in male albino rats. International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food & Biotechnological Engineering. 2016;10(8): 513–518.

Albasher G, Maashi N, Alfarraj S, Almeer R, Albrahim T, Alotibi F, Bin- Jumah M, Mahmoud MA. Perinatal exposure to tartrazine triggers oxidative stress and neurobehavioral alterations in mice offspring. Antioxidants. 2020;9(1): 53. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010053

Adele U AU, Iroh G, Briggs NO, Waribo AH, Elekima I. Evaluation of anti-oxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and liver function in albino rats orally administered tartrazine. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review. 2020;29(5):19-29.

Dermirkol O, Zhang X, Ercal N. Oxidative effect of tartrazine (Cas No. 1934-21-0) and new coccin (Cas No. 2611-82-7) azo dyes on CHO cells. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety. 2012;7:229– 236.