Main Article Content
The purpose of this research work is to evaluates, isolate, identify, characterized and compare the bacteria load in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Earthen and Concrete Fish Pond. African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a choice culture fish and an African delicacy to African consumers. Concrete pond and Earthen pond are the two types of ponds used in fish farming in West Africa. An earthen pond is a water body that is enclosed by earth while a concrete pond are pond constructed with bricks (plastered) or tanks. Clarias gariepinus were obtained from the earthen and concrete ponds from Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba–Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria. The fishes were harvested and eviscerated and different organs of the fish were collected for the purpose of this research work. Isolation of bacteria was done using the streaking method of cultural media. Preliminary characterization of bacterial isolates were based on Gram staining, morphological and cultural characteristics. Further characterization was carried out with various biochemical tests (Catalase, Citrate, Indole, Oxidase test, Starch hydrolysis, Urease and Sugar fermentation) and Bergey’s manual Microbiology. In concrete pond, it was observed that Bacillus subtilis was the most percentage frequently distributed bacteria isolate in Clarias gariepinus with (8%) Staphylococcus aureus (9.5%), Alcaligenes xylosidans (4.7%), Alcaligenes paradoxus (4.7%), Acinetobacter calcoa ceticus (4.7%), Pseudomonas putida (4.7%), Bacillus cereus (23.8%), Citrobacter amalonaticus (9.5%), Acinetobacter baumanni(4.7%), Listeria grayi(9.5%) and Listeria monocytogenes (4.7%) while In earthen pond Enterococcus gallinarum (4.0%), Streptococcus ub eris (8.0%) and Micrococcus luteus(4.0%) was the most frequently distributed bacteria isolate in Clarias gariepinus earthen pond, Marinococcus halophilus(4.0%),Enterobacter aerogenes (4.0%), Micrococcus lylae (4.0%), Alcalige nes faecalis(4.0%), Enterococcus molodoratus (4.0%), Enterococcus gallinarum (8.0%), Bacillus pumilus (4.0%), Citrobacter freundii (4.0%), Sporosa rcina inulinus (4.0%), Deinococcus radiodurans (4.0%), Vibrio marinus(4.0%), Listeria murrayi (4.0%), Deinobacter grandis(4.0%), Deinococcus proteolyticus (4.0%), Bacillus lautus(4.0%) and Micrococcus halobius (4.0%). Highest viable colony counts (5.6 × 104 for C. gariepinus were found in the concrete pond and (6.3 × 104) from the earthen pond respectively. Alimentary canal of fish in the concrete pond has the highest value of 4.73±0.81a and fish body has the lowest values (3.53±0.99a).Fish water has the highest value (4.33±1.15a) and lowest value (2.20±1.2a)) were found in earthen pond. It can be concluded that this organisms isolated from C. gariepinus in this study has the potential of becoming pathogenic and dangerous health risk and constitute severe economic loss to fish farmers and general populate especially those that consume catfish, therefore the Catfish should be raised in an hygienic and properly processed methods before consumption.
Al-Harbi AH, Uddin N. Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacterial flora of hybrid Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis aureus cultured in earthen ponds in Saudi Arabia. Aquaculture Research. 2003; 14:43–48.
Edun OM, Akinrotimi OA, Makinde OO. Seasonal changes of microbial load in some sea foods from Buguma and Ekerekana creeks, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. 2015;1(1):001-007.
Adedeji OB, Adebisi T, Emikpe BO. Bacteria load of the skin and stomach of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ibadan, South West Nigeria: Public health implications. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research. 2011;1(1):52–59.
Abraham TJ, Sil SK, Vineetha P. A comparative study of the aquaculture practices adopted by fish farmers in Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal. Indian Journal of Fisheries. 2010;57(3):41–48.
Williams BB, Olaosebikan BD, Adeleke A, Fagbenro OA. Status of African catfish farming in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of a workshop on the development of genetic improvement program for African catfish Clarias gariepinus held in Ghana (Raul WP &Nguyan HN, editors). 2007;49-56.
Adebayo OO, Daramola OA. Economic analysis of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) production in Ibadan metropolis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2013; 1(7):128-134.
Adebayo OO, Daramola OA. Economic analysis of catfish (Clariasgariepinus) production in Ibadan metropolis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 2013; 1(7):128-134.
Adedeji OB. Tiamiyu AM, Emikpe BO. Isolation and identification of aerobic Bacterial Flora of the skin and stomach of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ibadan, South west Nigeria. Journal of Applied. Science Research. 2011;7(7):1047-1051.
Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton C. Prescott, harley and klein’s microbiology. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education; 2008.
Leboffe MJ, Pierca BE. A photographic atlas for th e microbiology laboratory. 4th edn. Morton Publishing. Englewood, Colorado, United States of America; 2011.
Cheesebrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 2006; 143-147.
Oludare Temitope Osuntokun, Adewole Adeyemo Muniri, Aina Samson Olorun toba. Bacteriological assessment of fresh Crayfish (Macro Brachium Vollen hovenii) Handlers and River Sam p les from Asejire Dam Ikire Osun State Nigeria. Sumerianz Journal of Scientific Research. 2020;3(5): 45-58 ISSN(e): 2617-6955, ISS N(p): 2617-765X.
Hoffman-Soommer M, Migdalski A, Rytka J, Kucharczyk R. Multiple functions of the vascular sorting protein Ccz1p in Sacc haromyces cerrevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:197-204.
Fawole MO, Oso BA. Characterization of Bacteria:Laboratory Manual of Micro biology. 4th Edition, Spectrum Book Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2004;24-33.
Egbebi AO, Muhammad AA, Ugbodaga M, Oyama MO. Bacteriological analysis of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Owo Area, Ondo State, Nigeria. IJRDO-Journal of Biological Science. 2016;2(10):71-80.
Shinkafi SA, Ukwaja VC. Bacteria associated with fresh tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) Sold At Sokoto Central Market in Sokoto, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 2010;18(2):217-221.
Adebayo–Tayo BC, Odu NN, Igwiloh NJPN, Okonko IO. Microbiological and physicochemical level of fresh catfish, arius hendelotic from different markets in AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. New York Science Journal. 2012;5(4):46–52.
Olugbojo JA, Ayoola SO. Comparative studies of bacteria load in fish species of commercial importance at the aquaculture unit and lagoon front of the University of Lagos. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture. 2015;7(4):36–46.
Ajani EK, Orisasona O, Omitoyin BO. Comparision of bacterial flora and frequency of occurrence in water and Clarias gariepinus raised in ponds fertilized with raw poultry manure. Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 2016;10(1):016–021.016
Albert AC, Felix EC, Solomon OE, Emeh CC. Effect of habitat locations on the bacteriological and physicochemical assessment of aquaculture freshwater catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using small scale depuration system. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2016;1(1):1–9.
Babu PS. Ichyozoonoses. Fish farmer International. 2000;14:14-17.
Udeze AO, Talatu M, Ezediokpu MN, Nwanze JC, Onoh C, Okonko IO. The effect of Klebsiella pneumonia on catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Research. 2012; 4(4):51-59.
.Adebayo EA, Majolagbe ON, Ola IO, Ogundiran MA. Antibiotic resistance pattern of isolated bacterial from salads. Journal of Research in Biology. 2012; 2:136-142.
Cipriano R. Far from superficial: microbial diversity associated with the dermal mucus of fish. In: Cipriano R, Schelkunov I, editors. Health and diseases of aquatic organisms: bilateril perspectives. East Lansing, MI: MSU Press. 2011;156–67.
Emikpe BO, Adebisi T, Adedeji OB. Bacteria load on the skin and stomach of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochsomis niloticus from Ibadan, South West Nigeria: Public Health Implications. Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology Research. 2011;1(1):52-59.
Oladosu GA., Ayinla OA, Ajiboye MO. Isolation and pathogenicity of Bacillus species. Associated with a septicaemic Condition in some Tropical Freshwater Fish Species. Journal of Applied Ichthy ology, 2011;10:69-72.
Eze El, Echezona BC, Uzodinma EC. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria associated with frozen mackerel fish (Scomber scombrus) in a humid tropical environment. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2011;6(7):1918–1922.
Carla R, Maria AC. Assessmenet of the microbiological quality of recreational waters: Indicators & methods. Euro-Mediterranean Journal of Environmental Integration. 2016;2:25.
Osungbemiro NR, Sanni RO, Olaniyan RF, Olajuyigbe AO. Bacteria flora in the gut and respiratory organs of Clarias gariepinus in fresh and brackish water habitats of Ondo state, Southwest Nigeria. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2014; 8(6):558–561.
Olaoye OJ. Dynamics of adoption process of improved fisheries technologies in Lagos and Ogun States; 2010.
Brummett RE, Youaleu J, Tiani LN, Kenmegne AM. Women’s traditional fishery and alternative aquatic resource livelihood strategies in the southern Cameroonian Rainforest. Fisheries Management and Ecology. 2010;17:221–230.