Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity of Gardenia aqualla Stem Bark Methanol Extract
Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology,
Aim: This study was aimed at examining the antimicrobial and wound healing activities of Gardenia aqualla stem bark methanol extract (GASBME) in order to provide scientific basis for its antimicrobial and wound healing properties.
Methodology: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and antimicrobial activity determined using some pathogenic micro-organisms were evaluated following its wound healing effectiveness in Wistar rats using the model of superficial skin excision wound. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet’s t-test.
Results: The results of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, tannins, alkaloids with anthraquinones being absent. The extract showed antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi and significant (p< 0.05, p< 0.001) decrease in wound measurement by the 11th day.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GASBME possesses antimicrobial activity with wound healing properties that justifies the ethno-medicinal use of the plant in wound/ulcer healings.
- Wound healing
- Gardenia aqualla
- Albino Rats
How to Cite
Lucía CPA, Jacqueline BR, Alberto BRL, David BA, Beatriz RA. Actualized inventory of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2021; 17(1):1-15.
Lai PK, Roy J. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Current medicinal chemistry. 2004; 11(11):1451-60.
Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2014; 4:177.
Yeshiwas Y, Tadele E, Tiruneh W. The dynamics of medicinal plants utilization practice nexus its health and economic role in Ethiopia: A review paper. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2019;11(1):31- 47.
Effraim KD, Jacks TW. and Sopio OA. Histopathological Studies on the Toxicity of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Extracts on some organs of Rabbit, African Journal of Biomedical African Journal Biomedical Research. 2003;6:21 – 28.
Audu JA. Medicinal plants and their use in Bauchi State. Nigeria Field. 1989;54:157-168.
Chindo BA, Anuka JA, Lees G, Yaro AH, Adamu SS, Amos S, Wambebe C, Gamaniel KS. Psychopharmacological properties of the saponin fraction of Ficus platyphylla stem bark. Inter J of Biol and Chem Sci. 2008;2(3):239-248.
Chindo BA, Schroder H, Koeberle A, Werz O, Becker A. Analgesic potential of standardized methanol stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla in mice; Mechanisms of actions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;184: 101-106.
Yelwa AS, Mshelia HE, Cyril O, Lawal I, Bature HB, Shamsiya A, Christiana ER. Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity study and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activities of the fractions of Dacryodes edulis against selected clinical bacterial isolates. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2017;6(4):1910-1915.
Chindo BA, Anuka JA, Gamaniel KS. Toxicity screenings of Ficus platyphylla stem bark in rats, Pharmacologia. 2012a; 3:499-505.
Sheidu AR, Umar ZA, Abubakar A, Ahmed CB, Garba MM, Ogere AI, Murtala SO. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Methanol Extract of Ficus platyphylla Stem Bark Delile (Moraceae) in Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(3):91-97.
Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 15th Ed. Saunders WR, London. 2002;233–336.
Lorke D. A new approach to acute toxicity testing; Arch. Toxicol. 1983;54:275-287
Özçelik B, Orhan I, Toker G. Antiviral and antimicrobial assessment of some selected flavonoids. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2006;61(9-10):632-8.
Celiktas OY, Kocabas EEH, Bedir E, Sukan FV, Ozek T, Baser KHC. “Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations,” Food Chemistry. 2007;100(2):553–559.
Nayak BS, Anderson M, Periara LM and Pinto. Evaluation of wound healing potency of Catharanthus roseus leaf extract in rats. Fitoterapia, 2007;78:540- 544.
John-Africa LB, Yahaya TA, Isimi CY. Anti-ulcer and Wound healing activities of Sida corymbosa in Rats. Afri J of Trad, Complem and Alter Med. 2014;11(1):87- 92.
Sabale P, Bhimani B, Prajapati C, Sabalea V. An overview of medicinal plants as wound healers. J of Applied Pharma Sci. 2012;2(11):143–150.
Vidhya R, Udayakumar R. Antifungal efficacy of leaf, flower and root of Aervan lanata (Linn.) against selected fungal pathogens. J immunol Clin Microbiol, 2017;2(1),7-13
Redondo ML, Chacana AP, Dominguez EF and Miyakawa FEM. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry. Review Article. Front. Microbiol. 2014; 5:118.
Ahmad I, Beg AZ. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J of Ethnopharmacol. 2001;74(2):113-23.
Khemiri I, Hedi EB, Zouaoui SN, Gdara BN and Bitri L. The Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potential of Opuntia ficus indic L. intermis Extracted oil from Tunisia. Evi. Base Compli. and Alter. Med. Hindawi; 2019. ID 91487 82.
Bodenstein J, Du Toit K. The Susceptibility of Staphylococcus Aureus and Klebsiella Pneumoniae to Naturally Derived Selected Classes of Flavonoids; 2012.
Getie M, Gebre-Mariam T, Rietz R, et al. Evaluation of the anti-microbial and anti- inflammatory activities of the medicinal plants Dodonaea viscosa, Rumex nervosus and Rumex abyssinicus. Fitoterapia, 2003; 74 (1): 139–143.
Arun M, Satish S, Anima P. Evaluation of wound healing, antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. leaves,” Avicenna J of Phytomed. 2016; 6(3): 295-304.
Armstrong DG, Jude EB. “The role of matrix metalloproteinases in wound healing,” J of the American Podiatric Med. Assoc. 2002;92(1):12-18.
Kipngeno DC, Mshimba SM, Gilbert C. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical investigation of crude extracts of the fruits of Solanum incanum (Solananceae) and Dovyalis abbysinica (Flacourtiaceae),” Sci J of Microbiol; 2014.
Demilew W, Adinew MG, Asrade S. Evaluation of the Wound Healing Activity of the Crude Extract of Leaves of Acanthus polystachyus Delile (Acanthaceae). Evid. Base Compli. and Alter. Med., 2018;8:9.
Diegelmann RF, Evans MC. Wound healing: an overview of acute, fibrotic and delayed healing. Front. Biosci. 2014;9: 283-289.
Gardner SE, Frantz RA. Wound bioburden and infection-related complications in diabetic foot ulcers. Biol Res Nurs. 2008; 10:44–53.
Abstract View: 141 times
PDF Download: 36 times