Genotoxic and Cytotoxicity Activities of Leaf Extract of Setaria megaphylla

Okokon J. E.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa-ibom State, Nigeria.

Ochigbo E. B.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa-ibom State, Nigeria.

Johnny I. I.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Anagboso M. O.

Department of Microbiology, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Ebong N. O. *

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria. Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Setaria megaphylla a medicinal plant, used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of malaria, diabetes and inflammatory diseases was investigated for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on cells of the root meristem of Allium cepa. Bulbs of Onion were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the leaf extract for macroscopic and microscopic study. Tap water was used as a negative control and Methotrexate (0.1 mg/ml) as a positive control. Depending on concentration by the extract, there was statistically significant (P < .05) inhibition of root growth when compared with the negative control group. All the tested concentrations of the extract were observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. The extract- induced micronuclei (MNC) formations and chromosomal aberrations in A. cepa root tip cells were significant (P < .05) when compared with control group. The extract treatment further induced, ghost cells, cells membrane damage, cell death, and bi nucleated cells. These results implies that Setaria megaphylla leaf extract possess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on A. cepa which is as a results of its phytochemical constituents.

Keywords: Setaria megaphylla, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, Alium cepa test

How to Cite

Okokon J. E., Ochigbo E. B., Johnny I. I., Anagboso M. O., & Ebong N. O. (2023). Genotoxic and Cytotoxicity Activities of Leaf Extract of Setaria megaphylla. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 15(3), 56–64.


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