Genotoxic Potential, Total Flavonoid and Phenolic Contents of Solanum anomalum Thonn. Ex Schumach Leaf

Jude E. Okokon

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Imoh I. Johnny *

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Elvis O. Edet

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Idongesit C. Etuk

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Inyang J. Udo

Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Asurua, Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Solanum anomalum, a medicinal plant, used in ethnomedicine for their antimalarial, antidiabetic, and antiphlogistic activities was investigated for cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The extract and fractions was also screened for total flavonoid and phenol content using standard methods. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/mL, 5mg/mL, and 10 mg/mL concentrations of the leaf extract for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water was used as a negative control and Methotrexate (0.1 mg/mL) as a positive control. There was statistically significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extract when compared with the negative control group. All the tested concentrations of the extract were observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. The extract- induced chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC) formations in A. cepa root tip cells were significant (p<0.05) when compared with control group. The extract treatment further induced cell death, ghost cells, cells membrane damage, and binucleated cells. The dichloromethane fraction was found to contain the highest level of total flavonoid and phenol followed by the crude extract. These results suggest that Solanum anomalum leaf extract possess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on A. cepa which is as a results of its phytochemical constituents.

Keywords: Solanum anomalum, genotoxicity, cytoxicity, Allium Cepa


How to Cite

Okokon , Jude E., Imoh I. Johnny, Elvis O. Edet, Idongesit C. Etuk, and Inyang J. Udo. 2023. “Genotoxic Potential, Total Flavonoid and Phenolic Contents of Solanum Anomalum Thonn. Ex Schumach Leaf”. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 15 (3):104-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2023/v15i3343.

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