Studies on Various Taxonomic, Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Properties of Sanchezia speciosa Leonard Acanthaceae

Romanus A. Umoh *

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

Imoh I. Johnny

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

Emmanuel R. Idio

Department of Botany and Ecological Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

Nsima A. Andy

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

Goodnews E. Charles

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

Anwanabasi E. Udoh

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

Daniel A. Owineng

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

TiyoAbasi A. Udom

Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, AkwaIbom State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Sanchezia speciosa Leonard, Acanthaceae is used as ornamental plant. It used in folklore medicine in the management of pain, anti-microbial and insecticide. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the various taxonomic, pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards to ensure the identity, purity, safety and efficacy of the medicinal plant, S. speciosa. Various observations were recorded which included microscopy, micromeritics, fluorescence, chemomicroscopy, soluble extractive values, moisture contents and phytochemical analysis. The results indicated that the epidermal shapes were both polygonal on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Stomatal distribution was amphistomatic with anisocytic and diacytic stomata on the adaxial and abaxial surface, respectively. Stomatal index was 21.47% on the adaxial surface and 15.43% on the abaxial surface. Micromeritics results for the leaf powder were bulk volume of 25.33± 0.408, tapped volume of 19.00± 0.00, bulk density of 0.40± 0.006, tapped density of 0.53± 0.021, Hausner’s ratio of 1.34± 0.037, Carr’s index of 25.00± 2.550 and angle of repose of 43.07°. The micromeritics indicated a passable flow. The chemo microscopy indicated presence of lignin, mucilage and starch. Fluorescence properties showed different colours under different ultraviolet lights. The water-soluble, methanol-soluble, ethanol-soluble extractive values were 14.7% w/w, 4.3% w/w and 5.0% w/w, respectively. Moisture content was 8.5% w/w. Total ash, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values were 20.0 % w/w, 2.0% w/w and 4.2% w/w, respectively. GC-MS of methanol extract revealed the total of 39 phytochemicals with over 5 prominent peaks having higher area% which include hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (2.64%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester (4.77%), phytol (9.98%), 9,12,15 octadecatrienoic acid (12.97%), Stigmasterol (2.00%) and Squalene (28.16%). Other compounds are glycerin (5.83%), n-hexadecanoic acid (2.85%) and 9 octadecenamide (2.18%). Many of them possess good pharmacological properties. The data generated from the present study would help to authenticate S. speciosa and also affirm its folklore use in traditional medicine which has potential for further development into drug product.

Keywords: Amphistomatic, GC-MS, micromeritics, pharmacognostic, Sanchezia speciosa, phytochemicals


How to Cite

Umoh, R. A., Johnny, I. I., Idio, E. R., Andy, N. A., Charles, G. E., Udoh, A. E., Owineng, D. A., & Udom, T. A. (2024). Studies on Various Taxonomic, Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Properties of Sanchezia speciosa Leonard Acanthaceae. Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 16(6), 70–80. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajbgmb/2024/v16i6384

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