Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics&nbsp;and&nbsp;Molecular Biology (ISSN: 2582-3698)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJBGMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>). The area of interest of AJBGMB includes but not restricted to all aspects of&nbsp; Biochemistry,&nbsp;Genetics and Molecular Biology. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biolog) (Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biolog) Sat, 08 Aug 2020 12:08:33 +0000 OJS 60 Genetic Analysis of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Nirwana Strain Cultured in Aceh Besar and Wanayasa by Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Method <p>This research was carried out from June to November 2017. This research aims to analyze genetic relationship of tilapia (<em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) nirwana strain which is cultured in Aceh Besar (Aceh Province) and in Wanayasa (West Java Province) with RAPD-PCR technique. The DNA Isolation Activity of tilapia nirwana strain was carried out in The Biotechnology Laboratory, Building No.4, FPIK UNPAD, Indonesia and the PCR process was carried out in The Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Building No.3 FPIK UNPAD, Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to determine the level of genetic relationship of tilapia nirwana strain cultured in Aceh Besar and Wanayasa and to find out whether tilapia nirwana strain in Aceh Besar can be used as a genetic stock. The results showed that genetic relationship level of tilapia nirwana strain cultured in Aceh Besar with those cultured in Wanayasa is 67%. The existence of environmental differences results in genetic diversity between Aceh Besar and Wanayasa tilapia nirwana strain. Factors that causing grouping movement are external factors such as: Geographical isolation and habitat fragmentation as well as internal factors such as mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow. Tilapia nirwana strain that is cultured in Aceh Besar produce polymorphic bands, so it can be used as a new genetic stock to stabilize the tilapia nirwana strain production.</p> Ayi Yustiati, Reifolnanda Mangappu Hutagalung, Yuli Andriani, Walim Lili, Ibnu Bangkit ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 08 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Different Explants and Growth Regulators on In vitro Regeneration of Chrysanthemum <p>Chrysanthemum is the world’s second most economically important flower crop and commonly known as ‘Autumn Queen’. It belongs to the family Compositeae (Asteraceae). It is native to Asia and northeastern Europe and has been cultivated for more than 2000 years. The present study within vitro regeneration of chrysanthemum was carried out to develop the standardized protocol for organogenesis. In this study, three types of explants viz. apical shoot tip, internodal segment and young leaf along with different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators were used for in vitro regeneration. BAP and KIN were used for in vitro microshoot regeneration and IBA along with 2, 4-D were used for in vitro microroot regeneration. Minimum days (7.00) for microshoot initiation, maximum microshoot initiation percentage (97.00), highest number of microshoot per plantlet (12.00), highest number of leaves per microshoot (14.60) and maximum microshoot length (4.60) at 28 DAC were recorded as best performances by apical shoot tip inoculated into MS medium supplemented with BAP 2.5 mg/L + KIN 0.5 mg/L. On the other hand, minimum days (5.00) for microroot initiation, maximum microroot initiation percentage (97.60), the highest number of microroots per plantlet (11.80) and maximum microroot length (6.20) were obtained from apical shoot tip inoculated into ½ strength MS medium supplemented with IBA 0.2 mg/L + 2, 4-D 0.1 mg/L. In case of microshoot regeneration, the best response was showed by apical shoot tip when inoculated into MS medium supplemented with BAP 2.5 mg/L + KIN 0.5 mg/L and the microrooting of plantlets were best from apical shoot tip inoculated into ½ MS medium supplemented with IBA 0.2 mg/L along with 2, 4-D 0.1 mg/L.</p> Md. Nazmul Hasan Mehedi, Nurunnahar Mitu, Mahbub Robbani, Kazi Foyjun Nesa Sukhi, Hasan Sofiur Rahman, Mahmud Al Noor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Validating 3-Phosphoinositide Dependent Protein Kinase-1 as a Drug Target in African Trypanosoma <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Human African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted to the mammalian host through the bite of an infected tsetse fly of the genus <em>Glossina </em>species<em>. </em>The disease is caused by two species,<em> Trypanosoma brucei gambiense </em>and <em>Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense,</em> disease outcome is dependent on the infective species. Currently, treatment of African trypanosomiasis is dependent on drugs that are highly toxic and drug resistance has been observed. Therefore, there is a need for development of new drugs and vaccines. The genome of <em>T. brucei</em> has been completely sequenced and analysis of the kinome has revealed 156 eukaryotic protein kinases. One such kinase is a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), a member of the AGC family of protein kinases which shares 35% similarity with the human PDK-1.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, RNA interference of 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 was carried out to investigate the effect of gene knock down on <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>Trypanosoma brucei</em> 3<strong>-</strong>phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 is important in <em>T. brucei brucei</em> cell proliferation. Further investigations using DAPI and fluorescence microscopy showed that gene knockdown had an impact on cell phenotype.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> RNA interference was effective in knocking down genes corresponding to <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em> 3<strong>-</strong>phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1. Findings of the study demonstrate that TbPDK-1 is important in cell proliferation in blood stream form <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei.</em> These results validate TbPDK-1 as a potential drug target for African trypanosomes.</p> Namaunga Kasumu Chisompola ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Caryota no on Antioxidant Levels in Drosophila melanogaster <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To investigate the anti-oxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of <em>Caryota no</em> seeds in <em>Drosophila</em> <em>melanogaster</em> (DM).</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Experimental design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration: </strong>Sample: African Centre of Excellence for Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State Nigeria between June 2018 and February 2019.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> These assays were conducted by exposing 50 flies per vial to the selected concentrations (350 mg, 400 mg and 500 mg) of the extract in 5 independent replicates for seven days while control group received distilled water. The total protein content was then determined from the supernatant of the fly homogenate. The antioxidant activity and levels of GST, CAT and total thiol were then measured. The statistical difference among test groups was presumed at <em>P</em> &lt; .05.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The methanolic extract of <em>Caryota no</em> caused nonsignificant (<em>P</em> = .33) decrease in total proteins in DM below basal levels in a dose-dependent pattern.&nbsp; The antioxidant activity showed nonsignificant (<em>P</em> = .28) lowering of the GST activity in DM below control levels. The methanolic extract of CN nonsignificantly (P &gt; .05) increased the levels of catalase (<em>P</em> = .36) and total thiol levels (<em>P</em> = .22).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It can therefore be concluded that the methanolic extract of <em>Caryota no</em> contains appreciable concentrations of different types of antioxidants. This may provide perspectives for the evaluation and development of effective and safe phytomedicines created from the local biodiversity.&nbsp;</p> Chinonye A. Maduagwuna, Simeon Omale, Monday A. Etuh, Steven S. Gyang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000