Open Access Method Article
EVI1 is a transcriptional factor with two distinct zinc finger domains and encoded in human chromosome 3q26. In human, the protein is believed to have role in cell proliferation, organogenesis and it was detected in kidneys and lungs. EVI1 overexpression has been associated with various conditions such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In the present study, Carbonic Anhydrase III (CaIII) was expressed at much lower levels in EVI1 overexpressing fibroblast cells compared to the wild type indicating an inhibitory role of EVI1 against CaIII. Our results were further confirmed by western blot in which CaIII protein in normal fibroblast cells was more abundance than that in cells with EVI1 enforced expression. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay showed repressed promotor activity in EVI1 overexpressing cells resulted from EVI1 interfering with CaIII promotor by direct or indirect binding. Fibroblast cells with repressed CaIII showed higher sensitivity to apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide, this is attributed to the downregulation of CaIII gene which has a defensive role against the oxidative damage. It has been reported that the CaIII overexpression increases the cell resistance against the oxidative stress caused by exposure to H2O2. Thus, elevated EVI1 levels repress CaIII expression leading to increased cell sensitivity to H2O2-induced apoptosis. These findings seem to be constant with previous studies, and might introduce a novel approach to treat leukaemia depending on H2O2-induced apoptosis.
Open Access Original Research Article
Strong associations between agronomic and physiologic traits and drought tolerance, high heritability and high genetic advance for such traits would allow plant breeder to use such traits as selection criteria for selecting drought tolerant genotypes. The objectives of the present investigation were: (i) to explain the relationships between the drought tolerance index (DTI) and 14 agronomic and physiologic traits of 22 maize genotypes and (ii) to estimate the broad-sense heritability (h2b) and genetic advance (GA) from selection for such traits, in order to determine the selection criteria for DTI. A two-year experiment was carried out using a split plot experiment with three replications. The main plots were devoted to irrigation regimes, i.e. well watering (WW), water stress at flowering (WSF) and at grain filling (WSG), and sub plots to maize genotypes. It is evident from results that the best selection criteria for drought tolerance in our study were: 100-kernel weight (100KW) and chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) under WSF and WSG, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), upper stem diameter (SDU) and lower stem diameter (SDL) under WSF and kernels/row (KPR) and ear leaf area (ELA) under WSG, since they show high correlation (r) values with grain yield/plant (GYPP), high h2b and high GA estimates under the respective environments. Under well watering conditions, KPR, 100KW, CCI, and SDL traits showed high (r) values, high h2b and high GA estimates and therefore could be considered selection criteria for GYPP under non-stressed environment. The results concluded that predicted selection gain would be higher if selection was practiced under WW for lower values of days to silking and higher values of ears/plant, rows/ear, KPR, 100KW, SDU and SDL, under WSF for lower values of ASI and higher values of GYPP and under WSG for lower values of plant height, ear height, and barren stalks, and higher values of CCI and ELA.
Open Access Original Research Article
Introduction: Leukemia is the commonest malignancy of childhood and is the causative of a third of childhood cancer deaths. Lipid abnormalities have been recognized in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (All). Kidney involvement in leukemia can be quite immense.
Aim: This study aimed to investigate impact of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chemotherapy on serum lipid profile parameters and serum renal function tests and on body function.
Study Design: This study is carried out on pediatric patients with all.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was done on children diagnosed with all attended between October 2015 to December 2016 the Central Child Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.
Methodology: Eighteen pediatric ALL patients were enrolled. Serum blood lipid profile, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum uric acid (UA), and serum creatinine levels were measured during treatment.
Results: ALL was more among boys (61.11%) than girls. Of 18 cases, 14 (77.78%) were with low total cholesterol (TC), 2 (11.11%) with low triglycerides (TGs), all (100%) with low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 14 (77.78%) with low blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and 2 (11.11%) with low serum uric acid (UA). Four (22.22%) were with high serum TGs, 6 (33.33%) with high serum very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL), 12 (66.67%) with high BUN, and 2 (11.11%) with high creatinine.
Conclusions: Malignancies and chemotherapy recognizably affected serum lipid profile and serum renal function measurements and consequently adversely affected body. The specialist physician should be very careful in determining the dose of chemotherapy treatment, otherwise the specialist physician may be held accountable and accounting in case of serious damage to health or death of patients.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Chromosome staining using G banding is a commonly used technique during karyotyping, however, a limited number of laboratories carries out the test. Blood samples must be sent to the laboratory on the same day of sample collection.
Aim: To assess the effect of time passed from sample withdrawal to the beginning of lymphocyte culture on lymphocyte viability and the mitotic index of chromosomal spread.
Methods: Collected peripheral venous blood samples were either processed for chromosome analysis within 2h of samples collection or stored at 4°C then processed at 24h and 48h. Lymphocytes viability was determined by trypan blue and mitotic cells were visualized by the lighted microscope at the 40x objective lens. Mitotic index was calculated per 1000 cell count.
Results: Delay in sample processing more than 24h have a deleterious effect on lymphocyte viability with a significant reduction in mitotic index relative to the freshly processed sample.
Conclusion: Culturing of cells within 24h of sample collection is highly recommended whenever possible and delay more than 48h should be avoided.
Open Access Review Article
Disease states which are abnormal conditions that negatively affects the structure or function of parts or all of an organism usually lead to moderate or extensive tissue damage depending on the time of onset and severity of the disease. Such tissue damages are usually associated with the release of enzymes (specific to the diseased organ or tissue) into circulation which results in an increase in activity of such enzymes in body fluids. The measurement of these changes in enzymatic activity is usually employed as an important clinical assessment tool for detecting, diagnosing, screening and monitoring diseases and pathological processes. Some of the enzymes used in diagnosis include transaminases (in liver diseases), creatine kinase (in myocardial infarction), amylase (in pancreatitis), acid phosphatase (in malignant diseases), and alkaline phosphatase (in bone diseases). Some other enzymes are used as diagnostic reagents in detecting the presence of compounds of clinical importance. These include glucose oxidase (for detecting the presence of glucose), urate oxidase (for testing the presence of uric acid) and cholesterol oxidase (for testing the presence of cholesterol) in diabetes, kidney stones and arteriosclerosis respectively. Various body fluids also contain proteins other than enzymes that are of diagnostic importance especially the plasma proteins. The plasma proteins are broadly divided into two namely; albumin and globulin. The globulins include gamma-globulins, beta-globulins, alpha-1 globulins and alpha-2 globulin. Many physiological and/or disease conditions produce changes in these individual plasma protein concentrations, and measurements of these changes can provide diagnostic information. Some of such enzymes and proteins of diagnostic importance are discussed in this review.