Open Access Opinion Article

Nuclease Activity of the DNA Polymerases: An Evasion of Microscopic Reversibility Leading to Fidelity in Excess of Kinetic Control Levels

Sosale Chandrasekhar

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i1454

The exonuclease and endonuclease activities of the DNA polymerases, which extend their proof-reading capabilities and maintain high fidelity in the replication process, apparently conflict with the principle of microscopic reversibility. However, in-depth mechanistic analysis of the reactions leads to fascinating insights into the kinetic and thermodynamic effects controlling the replication of the primary genetic material. Thus, nucleotide addition and excision involve different pathways, although a violation of microscopic reversibility is avoided as the overall reaction does not reach equilibrium. Intriguingly, however, this allows the fidelity levels to exceed those expected from simple kinetic control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Treculia africana Aqueous Leaves Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Idris A. Kankara, Gayus A. Paulina, M. Aliyu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i1433

This study investigated the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of Treculia africana plant used in Nigeria as medicinal plant. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single dose intraperitoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg body weight. Twenty five (25) male albino rats were divided into five groups, five (5) rats per group; normal control, diabetic control and diabetic groups treated with aqueous leaves extract of 200,400 and 800 mg/Kg body weight respectively for 21 days orally. The effects of the extract on some biochemical parameters were evaluated; fasting blood glucose level was assayed using glucose oxidase method, total cholesterol and HDL –cholesterol were assayed using enzymatic method while LDL- cholesterol was determined by Friedewald equation. The results showed that, extract significantly (p<0.05) decrease the elevated fasting blood glucose levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL- cholesterol when compared with the diabetic control rats. The extract also caused significant (p<0.05) increased in HDL –cholesterol and body weight when compared with diabetic control rats. Aqueous leave extract of Treculia africana possess hypoglycemic effect and the most effective dose was 800 mg/Kg body weight in amelioration of hyperglycaemia and most all toxicity effects of alloxan on lipid profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variability, Heritability, Genetic Advance and Interrelationships for Agronomic and Yield Traits of Sorghum B-Lines under Different Environments

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, R. M. Abd El-Salam, M. R. A. Hovny, Walaa Y. S. Yaseen

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i1443

Information on heritability and trait association in crops assist breeders to allocate resources necessary to effectively select for desired traits and to achieve maximum genetic gain with little time and resources. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the amount of genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and strength of association of yield related traits among sorghum lines under different environments in Egypt. Six environments with 25 sorghum B-lines were at two locations in Egypt (Giza and Shandaweel) in two years and two planting dates in one location (Giza). A randomized complete block design was used in each environment with three replications. Significant variation was observed among sorghum lines for all studied traits in all environments. Across environments, grain yield/plant (GYPP) showed positive and significant correlations with number of grains/plant (r = 0.71), days to flowering (r = 0.47), 1000-grain weight (r = 0.16) and plant height (PH) (r = 0.19). In general, the estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV). Combined across the six environments, the highest PCV and GCV was shown by PH trait (95.14 and 43.57%) followed by GYPP (36.42 and 30.78%), respectively, indicating that selection for high values of these traits of sorghum would be effective. GYPP and PH traits showed high heritability associated with high genetic advance from selection, indicating that there are good opportunities to get success in improvement of these traits via selection procedures. Results concluded that PH is good selection criterion for GYPP and therefore selection for tall sorghum plants would increase grain yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors of Pre-diabetes/Diabetes among University Students: A Cross Sectional-study at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

Bright Oppong Afranie, Sampson Donkor, Simon Koffie, Selorm Philip Segbefia, Joseph Badu Gyapong, Beatrice Amoah, Kwabena Fofie Nimoh, Joseph Entwi Sampson

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i1458

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and its complications include retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Early detection of the risk factors and management of pre-diabetes can however reduce the risk of developing diabetes-related complications.

Objective: This study was undertaken to assess cardio-metabolic risk factors for diabetes among undergraduate students at KNUST.

Method: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology at Kumasi, from January 2017 to March 2017. Questionnaires were administered to 500 participants (45% males and 55% females) to obtain demographic and anthropometric data, information on physical activity, and knowledge on diabetes. About 5 ml of venous blood was taken from participants after an overnight fast to determine fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid profile.

Results: The mean age of participants were 21±2.40 years and 19.24±2.42 years for male and female respectively. Prevalence rate of pre-diabetes was 5% in this study. Mean values of systolic pressure (p<0.001) and blood glucose level (p=0.042) were significantly higher in men than the females. There was a significant association between the total cholesterol and the fasting blood sugar levels among participants (p=0.045). LDL-cholesterols concentrations were also significantly associated with blood sugar levels among participants (p<0.001). Risk factors such physical exercise (p<0.001) and family history (p<0.001) if diabetes were significantly associated with fasting blood glucose levels of participants. Obesity was no associated with serum glucose levels among participants in this study (p=0.533). HDL-cholesterol was inversely correlated with Fasting blood sugar even though it was no significant (r=-0.240, p=0.430).

Conclusion: The prevalence rate of pre-diabetes was 5% in this study. Education about the disease as well as appropriate modification of lifestyle can help reduce the incidence of diabetes and its associated risk factors. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Screening of Bio-surfactant Producing Bacteria Isolated from an Oil Contaminated Soil

Kawo Abdullahi Hassan, Yahaya Sani, Olawore Yemisi Ajoke

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i1465

Spent motor oil represents one of the most prominent and tenacious contaminants of soil within mechanic workshops across Nigeria. Adaptation and natural evolution proffer a rich array of a microorganism capable of producing bio-surfactants which are of high value to industry, particularly in hydrocarbon degradation. This study was undertaken to isolate and screen for bio-surfactant producing bacterial strains isolated from engine oil contaminated mechanic sites. Data obtained revealed that using 0.3% Fluconazole supplemented nutrient agar media, bacterial isolates were obtained from soil samples within Apo mechanic village, Abuja, Nigeria. Hemolytic assay method and foam capacity test were used for screening. The positive strains were grown in liquid medium and the emulsification index (EI24) was determined. A total of 3 bacterial isolates referred to as A2, B1 and C8 were positive for the hemolytic and foam capacity tests, with an emulsification index (EI24) of 40.0, 11.7 and 36.7 respectively. Growth measurements were determined by measuring optical density of the cells in broth using spectrophotometer at 605nm over a 96 hour incubatory period in nutrient broth at 4ºC, 37ºC, 42ºC. All isolates displayed mesophilic characteristics withprogressive growth. At 37ºC, isolate A2 had the highest growth rate via optical density readout 1.95, 2.11, 2.32, 2.55, measured at 605nm. Isolate A2 also the best performing isolate at 42ºC with optical density readings of 1.32, 1.00, 0.91 and 1.68, thereby suggestive of thermotolerant ability. All isolates demonstrated good growth in broth medium with pH ranging from 8.97-9.16 at 37ºC. All isolates were positive for catalase and citrate, negative for methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and indole tests. Isolate A2 was the only gram-positive, oxidase negative and non-motile bacteria. The bio-surfactants produced by the three different bacterial isolates would possess chemically distinct signatures that can be harnessed for multiple applications ranging from bioremediation to degradable detergent uses.