Open Access Minireview Article

Molecular Therapeutic Cancer Peptides: A Closer Look at Bovine Lactoferricin

Idris Zubairu Sadiq, Kamaluddeen Babagana, Dauda Danlami, Lawi Isa Abdullahi, Amir Riyaz Khan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i2471

Background: In spite of the progress that was recorded in the development of anticancer drugs, challenges continue to rises particularly due to resistance of the cancer chemotherapies and low sensitivity of the commercially available anticancer drugs.

Methodology: collection and review of available literatures.

Results: Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic peptide with broad spectrum antimicrobial and anticancer activity. It also shows promising activity against many varieties of cancer cells including colon carcinoma cells, melanoma, fibrosarcoma, monocytic leukemic cells and neuroblastoma. It is unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms seen with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, and displays a higher specificity for cancer cells versus normal cells in comparison to conventional chemotherapy. 

Conclusion: LfcinB exhibit strong antitumor activity effectively penetrating cell membrane, activating caspases and induce apoptosis to cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Saliva for Monitoring Renal Function in Haemodialysis Patients at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital

C. Amadi, Fyneface, Ibama Onengiyeofori, Davies Tamuno-Emine

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i2483

In this study, the concentrations of urea were assayed in both blood and saliva of 130 haemodialysis patients; before haemodialyis(pre-haemodialysis) and after haemodialysis (post haemodialysis); and 60 healthy individuals who made up the control group. The method used for urea assay was urease method. The mean±SD concentrations of salivary urea in pre and post haemodialysis patients, as well as control group, were 17±0.6 mmol/l, 9.1±0.5 mmol/l and 4.0±0.3 mmol/l respectively. The mean±SD concentrations of blood urea in pre and post haemodialysis patients, as well as control group, were 21.6±0.5 mmol/l, 9.1±0.4 mmol/l and 4.2±0.2 mmol/l respectively. The correlation coefficient between blood and salivary urea in pre-haemodialysis patients is 78.8% while that for post haemodialysis patients is 60.6% and for the control group is 90%. The ANOVA results of salivary urea in the three groups (pre, post and control) showed a significant difference with P-value ˂0.05. The ANOVA results of blood urea in the three groups (pre, post and control) showed a significant difference with P-value ˂0.05. From the various results obtained, saliva can serve as a diagnostic biofluid for renal disease especially with the salivary urea as the biomarker. Also, the salivary renal biomarker (urea) responds to changes in concentrations after therapeutic consideration. This study is in consonance with other literature that saliva is a diagnostic fluid for kidney disease; however, there is a need to carry out more research works to continually unveil the diagnostic potential of saliva in kidney disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Global Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana, L. Gaertn) germplasm Reaction to Striga in Kenya

Sirengo Peter Nyongesa, Wamalwa Dennis Simiyu, Oduor Chrispus, Odeny Damaris Achieng, Dangasuk Otto George

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i2493

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana, L. Gaertn) is an important food crop in Africa and Asia. The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth limits finger millet production through reduced yield in agro-ecologies where they exist. The damage of Striga to cereal crops is more severe under drought and low soil fertility. This study aims to determine genetic basis for reaction to Striga hermonthica among the selected germplasm of finger millets through genotyping by sequencing (GBS). One hundred finger millet genotypes were evaluated for reaction to Striga hermonthica infestation under field conditions at Alupe and Kibos in Western Kenya. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of 10 x 10 square (triple lattice) under Striga (inoculated) and no Striga conditions and plant growth monitored to maturity after 110 days. All genotypes were genotyped by genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and data analyzed using the non-reference based Universal Network Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) were done to establish the association of detected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with Striga reaction based on field results. In molecular analysis 117,542 SNPs from raw GBS data used in GWAS revealed that markers TP 85424 and TP 88244 were associated with Striga resistance in the 95 genotypes. Principal Component Analysis revealed that the first and third component axes accounted for 2.5 and 8% of total variance respectively and the genotypes were distributed according to their reaction to Striga weed. Genetic diversity analysis grouped the 95 accessions into three major clusters containing; 32 (A), 56 (B), and 7 (C) genotypes.  All finger millet genotypes that showed high resistance to Striga in the field were from cluster B while the most susceptible genotypes were from clusters A and C. Results revealed genetic variation for Striga resistance in cultivated finger millet genotypes and hence the possibility of marker –assisted breeding for resistance to Striga.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of the Interation of Metformin and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter Leaf) On Steptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

A. T. Oluwayemi, E. O. Nwachuku, B. Holy

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i227494

The effects of Vernonia amygdalina and metformin in lowering glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were evaluated. A total of 120 Wistar albino males and females rats weighing approximately 200 g were used for the study. Diabetes was induced in the rats using 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin, and it was confirmed by checking the glucose levels of the rats. Rats with glucose level greater than 10 mmol/L were considered diabetic. The extract, metformin and a combination of the extract and metformin were given orally to different groups of diabetic rats daily for 10 weeks. Four rats were sacrificed every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected from all the groups to estimate glucose, total protein and liver enzymes. The data obtained were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between groups were established using Dunnets. The extract and metformin produced significant (P<0.05) decrease in plasma glucose concentrations in the diabetic rats. There was also a reduction in the plasma glucose of the rats that received a combination of the extract and metformin. The decrease in the blood glucose concentrations of the diabetic rats following the administration of the extract suggests that it possesses hypoglycemic effects on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The presence of flavonoids, saponins and other phytochemicals in the extract must have acted to potentiate the hypoglycemic role of the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterisation of Global Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana, L. Gaertn) Germplasm Reaction to Striga in Kenya

Sirengo Peter Nyongesa, Oduor Chrispus, Dennis Simiyu Wamalwa, Odeny Damaris Achieng, Rajneesh Paliwal, Matasyoh Lexa, Dangasuk George

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i227497

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana, L. Gaertn) is an important food crop in Africa and Asia. Its grain is richer in protein, fat and minerals than other major cereals. The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth seriously limits finger millet production through reduced yield in agro-ecologies where they co-exist. The damage of Striga to cereal crops is more severe under drought and low soil fertility. The main objective of this study was to determine genetic basis for reaction to S. hermonthica among the selected germplasm of finger millet through genotyping by sequencing (GBS). One hundred finger millet genotypes were evaluated for reaction to S. hermonthica (Del) Benth infestation under field conditions at Alupe and Kibos in Western Kenya. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of 10 x 10 square (triple lattice). The genotypes were planted both under Striga (inoculated) and no Striga conditions and plant growth was monitored to maturity. Statistical analysis of phenotypic data using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) PROC ANOVA revealed highly significant differences among genotypes for morphological traits at P<0.05.