Open Access Original Research Article

Mitotic Studies and Genotoxic Assessment of Edible Nigerian Aroids to Selected Oilfield Chemicals

Florence O. Ajah, Julian O. Osuji, Geoffrey O. Anoliefo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i429646

The genotoxic potentials of two water-based oilfield chemicals on edible aroids were investigated. Five accessions of Colocasia eculenta and three accessions of Xanthosoma maffafa were exposed to graded concentrations of sodium azide and potassium chromate; while the accessions without any chemical additive were used as controls. Results revealed that the peak periods of cell division were recorded between 12:00 noon to 4:00 pm in both the treated and control accessions. Metaphase cells increased after prophase cells and continued mostly between 10.00 am and 4.00 pm. Variations observed with the treatments included: shifts of metaphase peaks, high percentages of prophase cells, high intensity of cytoplasmic staining and induction of micronuclei among others. Sodium azide was observed to be a stronger genotoxic substance than potassium chromate. Accession NCe 001 had the highest survival rate while NCe 002 recorded the least rate of survival. Statistical evidence revealed that the difference in various mitotic stages and time of harvest between different accessions and treatments was significant at both 5% and 1%. The study provides useful information that would be used to promote cytogenetic researches as well as the exploitation and improvement of this neglected and underexploited economic plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improvement of Multiple-Locus VNTR Analysis Typing Scheme for Helicobacter pylori

Vladimir M. Sorokin, Ruslan V. Pisanov, Aleksej S. Vodop'janov

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i430045

Aims: To improve a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for Helicobacter pylori typing.

Materials and Methods: Polymorphic VNTRs were searched by Gene Expert. The distribution and polymorphism of each VNTR locus were analyzed in 18 H. pylori genomes from the NCBI genome database by BLAST and were compared with a collection of 15 clinical H. pylori strains. The MLVA assay was compared with MLST-typing for discriminating H. pylori isolates.

Results: Twelve VNTR loci were identified by bioinformatic screening of H. pylori genomes, and five of them were highly polymorphic. Therefore, an MLVA assay composed of five VNTR loci was developed with greatest discriminatory power.

Conclusion: MLVA typing is a faster and more standardized method for studying the genetic relatedness of H. pylori isolates. At preliminary stage it is sufficient to use only 3 VNTR loci for the differentiation of H. pylori strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Cardioprotective Effect of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) Seeds in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

C. O. L. Karikpo, E. S. Bartimaeus, B. Holy

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i430046

The study examined the cardioprotective potential of the ethanolic extract of Citrullus lanatus in streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats. A total of sixty albino rats weighing approximately ± 200 g were used. The induction of diabetes in the rats was done using 50 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin and confirmed by checking glucose levels using a glucometer. Albino rats with glucose levels greater than ≥ 250 mg/dl were considered diabetic. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 12 animals each and allowed access to food and water ad libitum. The animals had a 12 hour overnight fast after which diabetes was induced by injecting them intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The control (group A) was not induced while diabetic control was induced. Induced diabetic rats in groups C, D and E were later treated with C. lantus at a dose of 100 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg body weight respectively for 14 and 28 days respectively. After 14 days, 6 rats in each of the groups were sacrificed while the remaining 6 were sacrificed after 28 days. Blood samples were collected into lithium heparin bottles and used for the assay of cardiac enzymes (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) using standard procedures. The data obtained were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the difference between means was obtained using Tukey's multiple tests of comparison. Analyses showed that the levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in the albino rats treated with C. lanatus were significantly (p<0.05) reduced when compared with the diabetic-induced group without treatment and the decrease was dose-dependent. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the levels of the enzymes was also observed based on the duration of treatment with the extract. Since the enzymes are markers of cardiac injury, the decrease in their activity following treatment with C. lanatus shows that the extract possesses the significant cardioprotective potential of ameliorating structural integrity of the cardiac muscle in diabetic condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Phenolics, Flavonoids Contents, Antioxidant Activity and DNA Protective Effect of Lenten Rose (Helleborus orientalis)

Meral Öztürk, İbrahim Bulduk, Safiye Elif Korcan, Recep Liman, Funda Karabağ Çoban, Mustafa Kargıoğlu, Muhsin Konuk

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i430047

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antioxidant activity and DNA Protective effect of Helleborus orientalis (HO) leaf extract against oxidative damage, and to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant species studied.

Methods: The total phenol content (TPC) of H. orientalis (Ranunculaceae) extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The aluminum chloride colorimetric assay in the determination of The total flavonoid content (TFC) and was used, Analysis of Phenolic Acids was identified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant activity was analyzed by the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Assay. Protective effect of H. orientalis leaf extract against to H2O2 was evaluated by using TAS, TOS methods and Comet assay.

Key Findings: H. orientalis ethanol extracts contain high amounts of antioxidants. The HO leaf methanol extract (LME) decreased the DNA damage at all tested concentrations in a dose-dependent manner (r=0.86 p<0.01) against to H2O2.

Conclusions: The total phenol content in the extracts of different parts of the plant varied from 4.00 mg GAE/1 gr to 19.42 mg GAE/1 gr. The flowers had the highest phenol content (19.42 mg GAE/1 gr sample) and followed by the leaves (17.20 mg GAE/1 gr sample). The total flavonoid content in the extracts from different parts of the plant varied from 2.57 mg QE/1 gr to 11.88 mg QE/1 gr. The flowers had the highest flavonoid content (11.88 mg QE/1 gr sample) and followed by the leaves (10.21 mg QE/1 gr sample).

Antioxidant activity of fractions was explained as a percentage of DPPH radicals’ scavenging and IC50 values (μg/ml). Leaf and flowers of HO are richer in antioxidant than its root and stem. As the concentration of leaf extracts used increased, the DNA protective effect increased and it was statistically significant at overdoses of 2500 μg/mL. Total antioxidant status (TAS) levels were significantly (p <0.05) decreased in the H2O2 group (3.4±0.21) but H. orientalis was significantly (p<0.05) increased TAS levels in this group. When the concentration of leaf extracts used increased, the protective effect has also increased and statistically significant at overdoses of 2500 μg / mL (6.3±0.67). Total oxidant status (TOS) levels were significantly (p <0.05) increased in the H2O2 group (25.3±0.74) and H. orientalis was significantly (p<0.05) decreased TOS levels in groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening of Etlingera elatior (Torch Ginger) Cultivated on Different Dosage of Biochar

Isaac John Umaru, Benedict Samling, Hauwa A. Umaru

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2018/v1i430048

Objective: This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the impact of biochar on phytochemical composition in plant especially Etlingera elatior cultivated on different dosage of biochar.

Methods: Etlingera elatior was cultivated on the pot with 20 cm diameter and 35 cm height. 3 replicates for pots of Etlingera elatior was cultivated and label as 0%, 5% and 20%. The ordinary farm soil without biochar (0%) as control, fertilized soil with biochar; 5% and 20%. In a net house and watered twice daily. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was performed by using a non-polar BPX-5 capillary column with an initial temperature of 50°C hold for five minutes and then increased to 300°C at a rate of 5.0°C per minutes and hold 10 minutes. The biochar samples were analysed using an ATR-FTIR equipped with diamond crystal, controlled by OMNIC software (Thermo Nicolet Analytical Instruments, Madison, WI). A flat tip powder press was used to achieve even distribution and contact.

Results: The result showed significantly increased in the phytochemical composition with increase in the biochar concentration. At 0% phytol (13%), Hexadecanoic acid (9.76%), Neophytadiene (6.51%), coumarin (5.65%), precocene (5.27%) and caryophyllene (4.59%). At 5% are Dihydrocucurbitacin (13.69%), Niacinamide (11.02%), α-Limonene (10.01%), Phyrahen (9.23%), Phytol (7.24%) and Neophytadiene (5.75%) and at 20% Linoleic acid (39.98%), 2-pinen-4-ol (12.32%), Hexatriacontyl pentafluoropropionate (6.89%), Benzofuran (5.12%), Acethophenon (4.41%) and furfural (4.03%).

Conclusion: Application of biochar on soil can increase nutrient availability and enhance the development of phytochemical composition in plants. Without biochar, the chemical composition Etlingera elatior extract was slighlyt low. At 5% and 20% biochar, some compounds are increasing and new were obtained compared to 0% biochar. Most of the compounds known to be secondary metabolite which are rich in medicinal values. Thus, biochar could be used to increase the quantity and quality of phytochemicals in plant especially medicinal plants.