Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of (Oreochromis niloticus) Nirvana Tilapia Cultivated in Wanayasa and Galunggung, Lumajang, Bali, Minahasa Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Method

Ayi Yustiati, Ibnu Bangkit Bioshina Suryadi, . Rosidah, Walim Lili, Dian Yuni Pratiwi, Anandita Rahmania, Maryam Nur Latifah

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i330292

This research aims to determine the kinship of nirvana tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivated in Wanayasa with Galunggung, Lumajang, Bali, and Minahasa by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA method. All tilapia cultivated in these four places originated from Wanayasa. This research was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory, Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology, FPIK UNPAD. The research method was an explorative experiment with the RAPD-PCR technique using primary OPA-3 and OPA-5. However, the results of DNA amplification with OPA-3 were better than with OPA-5. Therefore, further analysis was carried out using data from OPA-3. Kinship was analyzed based on the similarity index which was calculated by Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System (NTSYS) program. The results showed that the kinship between Nirvana tilapia cultivated in Wanayasa with Galunggung, Lumajang, Bali, and Minahasa, according to the similarity index was high, about 77-85%. The highest similarity index (85%) was obtained between nirvana tilapia cultivated in Wanayasa with Galunggung, and the lowest similarity index (77%) between tilapia cultivated in Bali with Minahasa. Genetic changes that occur because of differences in cultivation environments range from 15-23%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Physiochemical Properties of Different Brands of Vegetable Oil Sold in Ihiala Market of Anambra State

Maryann Chinenye Maduako, Kizito Ifeanyi Amaefule, Jonathan Chinenye Ifemeje

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i3262

Objective: To compare the physicochemical properties of four brands of vegetable oil sold in Ihiala market.

Methods: The samples were brought from different super stores in Ihiala market and standard methods were used to analyze the physicochemical properties of the various  samples.

Results: The analysis showed that the peroxide value, saponification values, acid value, ester value and glycerol of palm kernel oil (43.91 ± 0.01, 1234.20 ± 0.01, 74.14 ± 0.01, 38.56 ± 0.02, 1195.60 ± 0.01 and 65.40 ± 0.02) is significantly higher than Lahda, Devon King’s and Power vegetable oil P < 0.05. While the iodine value, refractive index and specific gravity of Power oil and  Devon King’s oil (56.53 ± 0.10, 0.26 ± 0.01 and 0.91 ± 0.01) brought from Ihiala market were significantly higher than the other brands of vegetable oil i.e Lahda and Palm Kernel oil at P < 0.05. There is no significant difference in the refractive index and specific gravity of Palm kernel and Lahda oil (0.01 ± 0.01 and 0.01 ± 0.01) at P < 0.05.

Conclusion: The difference in the values of iodine, peroxide, saponification, acid value, FFA, ester value and glycerol level in the samples could be attributed to differences in the sources of the oil and in processing. However, the nutritional composition of the vegetable brands is still adequate for human consumption except that of Palm Kernel oil which has the highest values from the above analysis. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hunteria umbellata Methanolic Seed Extracts on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Albino Rats

Nwaogwugwu, J. C., Nosiri, C. I., Aguwamba, C., Aaron, C. F., Ike, U. W.

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 14-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i3263

This study investigated the inhibitory effect of alpha-amylase, LD50 and antidiabetic properties of the methanolic seed extract of Hunteria umbellata and its effect on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twelve albino rats were used for the acute toxicity test, while thirty-five were divided randomly into seven groups of five in each group. Group 1 served as the normal control, Group 2 served as the diabetic control, Group 3 was treated with glycinorm at 50 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was treated with extract at 200 mg/kg body weight, Group 5 was treated with 400 mg/kg body weight, Group 6 was treated with 600 mg/kg body weight and Group 7 was treated with 800 mg/kg body weight by oral administration. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at a single dose of 120 mg/kg body weight into groups 3 to 7 and was fed with methanolic seed extract of Hunteria umbellata for a period of 28 days.  The oral acute (LD50) toxicity study showed that extract did not cause mortality in any experimental animals even at the highest dose of 5000 mg/kg. Body weight and glucose levels were measured on days  0, 7, 14,21 and 28. The animal were sacrificed on day 28. Serum biochemical parameters were analysed. Additionally, renal function tests, including potassium, sodium, and chloride levels and protein and albumin levels, were performed. The study also evaluated hematological parameters in the animals that were fed the methanolic seed extract of  Hunteria  umbellata. The animals that received different methanolic seed extracts of Hunteria umbellata showed significant (p<0.05) reductions in blood glucose, inhibitory effect of alpha-amylase, serum liver enzymes, renal function biomarkers, packed cell volume and platelet counts and improved body weight. Conclusively, from this study, it has been demonstrated that the methanolic seed extract of Hunteria umbellata may possess weight enhancing, inhibitory effect of alpha-amylase, antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, improved hematological values, and cell and organ protective activities. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. umbellata protects against streptozotocin-induced diabetes via regulation of blood glucose, inhibition of alpha amylase and reverse some biochemical parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephro-protective Efficacy of African Locust Bean Seed against Potassium Bromate-induced Renal Damage

I. O. Abali, N. M. Chika-Igwenyi, F. U. Agu, C. A. Onyeaghala, S. F. Orji, C. N. Ugwu, C. Igwenyi, C. L. Uche, O. I. N. Onyekachi, M. U. Nwobodo, C. E. Iwuoha, A. I. Airaodion

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i3264

Background: Potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been utilized extensively to sterilize water, dye hair, oxidize food, add to bread dough as a maturing agent, and condition wheat dough, thereby entering into human body. It has been claimed to cause a number of toxicities including nephrotoxicity.

Aim: This study, therefore, sought to investigate the nephro-protective efficacy of African locust bean (ALB) seed against potassium bromate-induced renal damage.

Methodology: Using a soxhlet extractor with ethanol as the solvent, ALB was extracted. Twenty-four mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, and D after being acclimated in the lab. Oral distilled water was administered to Group A. Although groups C and D likewise received 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of ALB, respectively, the animals in groups B, C, and D received 100 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate. Rats received daily doses of freshly produced potassium bromate and ALB extract by oral gavage. Blood and kidney sample were taken after the prescribed 28-day course of medication. Standard techniques were used to assess renal biomarkers.

Results: When compared to the control group, potassium bromate treatment led to significant (P<0.05) increases in the serum levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl), and bicarbonate (HCO3). Renal levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were likewise elevated by KBrO3 poisoning in comparison to the control group. However, combined administration of KBrO3 and ALB seed extract resulted in significant dose-dependent reductions in the levels of all kidney biomarkers examined, with 200 mg/kg being the most effective dose.

Conclusion: This study revealed that potassium bromate indeed induced nephrotoxicity by unhinging renal biomarkers investigated in this study. It was further observed that seed extract of African locust bean (ALB) alleviated these adverse effects on the kidney by resisting the perturbations, thereby exhibiting nephron-protective effect. The biochemical composition of ALB has conferred it with this ability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity of Agro-morphogenic Traits in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

Md Anisur Rahama, Anik Sarkar, Sourav Modak, Md. Mahadi Hasan, Naheed Zeba

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i3265

The genetic diversity of agro-morphogenic traits in 14 genotypes of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) were studied in an experiment using a Complete randomizes Design (CRD). Each trait's analysis of variance revealed a substantial difference between genotypes. Multivariate analysis based on thirteen characters of fourteen soybean genotypes was divided into four clusters. The maximum contribution of traits towards diversity was observed by days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of main branches per plant and leaf area index. As a result, these traits could be emphasized during selection of parents for hybridization. The highest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster II and IV and the maximum intra cluster distance was found in cluster III. Considering group distance and other agro-morphogenic performance, genotypes G1 (BADC SV1) from cluster II, G10 (Asset-95) and G7 (BS-29) from cluster VII, G4 (GMOT-43) and G12 (BADC SV2) from cluster IV found potential for future hybridization program.