Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Age, Sex and Body Mass Index on the Levels of Glycosylated Haemoglobin among Non-Diabetic Nigerian Population

Ani, Chijioke Collins, Ojobor, Charles Chijioke, Ezeanyika, Lawrence Uchenna Sunday, Obi, Bonaventure Chukwunonso

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i130049

The influence of age and sex on the levels of glycosylated haemoglobin among non-diabetic Nigerian population were investigated in this study. Seventy-nine non-diabetic individuals volunteered for the study and were grouped into male and female and then into four groups according to age: ≤ 20 years, 21 - 40 years, 41 - 60 years and ≥ 61 years. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-load glucose, packed cell volume and genotype analyses of subjects were initially determined to ensure that subjects were non-diabetic and had no glucose metabolic impairment. Subsequently, glycosylated haemoglobin and body mass index were measured. Student’s t-test, Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the data which were presented as a mean ± standard deviation. Statistical significance was accepted at p ˂ 0.05. The results obtained showed that: (1) glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) significantly increased with age, (2) there is no correlation between HbA1c with sex and (3) there was a positive association between Hba1c and body mass index in normal glucose tolerant subjects. Based on the result of this study, the contributions of age and BMI to HbA1c levels should be taking into account when making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions with regard to diabetes care using HbA1c. The hba1c range of (4.0 - 5.2) % could be considered as the normal range for individuals below sixty-one years while the HbA1c level of ≤ 5.27% is suggested for individuals above sixty years. However, further studies are required especially to investigate the non-glycaemic factors affecting HbA1c levels in normal glucose tolerant populations so as to really understand the actual role glycosylated haemoglobin values play in diabetes management and diagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Evaluate the Association between Serum Leptin and Insulin/Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in a Tertiary Care Centre in North India

Manohar Athrey, Manjulata Kumawat, Sameer Aggarwal

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i130050

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) a common endocrinological disorder among women in the reproductive age group, is associated with hyperinsulinemia/Insulin resistance, obesity, menstrual irregularities and anovulation.

Aim and Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between insulin/insulin resistance and leptin among women with PCOS in a sample population of a tertiary care centre in North India.

Materials: Ninety newly diagnosed cases of PCOS as per Rotterdam criteria were enrolled in the study, along with ninety normal women of similar age and BMI. Serum insulin, fasting glucose and serum leptin were estimated, Insulin resistance was calculated using (HOMA-IR) the homeostatic model for assessment-insulin resistance.

Results: In our study leptin levels were raised in both cases and in controls. Leptin levels correlated positively with BMI among the cases (r=0.21) and also among the controls (r=0.003). In our study PCOS women had higher mean BMI and leptin levels when compared to controls. Insulin levels correlated positively with BMI among the cases (r=0.21) and was statistically significant (P=.004). Insulin levels were higher in women with BMI in the overweight and obese category. Although most of our cases were of lean weight and BMI in the normal range, high insulin and IR was detected in them showing impaired glucose metabolism. Leptin levels were higher in cases group who also had high IR when compared to healthy controls in our study. Leptin levels correlated positively with IR among cases (r=0.25) and this was statistically significant (P=.013).

Conclusion: Our study showed higher serum Leptin, insulin and IR among PCOS cases when compared to the control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dose-Dependent Chemopreventive Effect of Methanol Extract of Carica papaya Seed on Potassium Bromate- Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

M. A. Kanadi, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. L. Ngwen, A. I. Yaradua, A. Nasir

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i130051

Aim: To investigate the effect of Carica papaya seed extract on KBrO3 - induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Renal toxicity was induced by a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of KBrO3.

Study Design: Thirty (30) male albino rats were divided into six groups, five rats per group; normal control, KBrO3 control, papaya control and KBrO3 group administered with methanol seed extract of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight for 48 hours.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, from April 2018 to August 2018.

Methodology: Serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and electrolytes were determined using kits from randox laboratories. Furthermore, activities of renal brush border membrane marker enzymes namely γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), maltase (Mal) and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and some parameters of oxidative stress including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in homogenates prepared from renal cortex and medulla of the kidney of rats using colorimetric methods.

Results: Administration of KBrO3 significantly (P<0.05) increases the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid and all electrolytes studied in a dose-dependent fashion from 200mg/kg to 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg in that order. Furthermore, the activities of GGT, ALP, Mal and LAP decrease in renal homogenates with KBrO3 administration. Also the activities of CAT, SOD, GPx and level of GSH decreases while the level of MDA significantly (P<0.05) increases however concurrent administration of Carica papaya seed extract prevented all the KBrO3- induced changes in the biochemical parameters studied .

Conclusion: It was suggested that methanol seed extract of Carica papaya possess nephroprotective effect against KBrO3 –induced renal toxicity and oxidative stress, and the most effective dose was 600 mg/kg body weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity of N-(P-chlorophenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin -3-yl carboxamide and Ethyl 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl Ester

A. S. Tmamm, F. Z. Mohammed, I. M. El-Deen

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i130052

Background: Coumarins (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one), an important class of heterocyclic compounds, and its derivatives can be found in many natural or synthetic drug molecules and possess versatile bioactivities making them important molecules for medical practitioners and medicinal chemists.

Aims and Objective: Our study aims to evaluate cytotoxicity of new Coumarin derivatives: N-(P-chlorophenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl carboxamide (comp-3) and Ethyl 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl ester (comp-2) against four human cell lines such as human breast cancer (MCF-7), human liver cancer (HEPG-2), human colon cancer (HCT) and human prostate cancer cell (PC-3).

Methodology: The ethyl-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-ylester (comp-2) was prepared via cyclocon-densation of 2, 4-dihydroxybenzaldhyde with diethylmalonate in the presence of piperidine under fusion followed by Amonolyses with 4-chloro-aniline in the presence of acid medium under fusion produced the N-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl carboxamide (comp-3).

Result: The synthesized compounds have potent cytotoxicity against different tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HEPG-2, HCT, and PC-3).

Discussion: The compound N-(P-chlorophenyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl carboxamide (comp-3) is better than Ethyl 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl ester (comp-2) because of the nature of the halogen atom (a chlorine or a bromine atom) in the ‘meta’ position of the phenyl ring relative to the ester oxygen atom of 2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran- 3-carboxylate led to a better anti-tumor effect than that observed in the absence of any substituent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Effect of Aqueous Extract of Entandrophragma angolense and Vitamin B12 on Induced Hemolytic Anemia and Inflammation in the Wistar Rat

Adeoti, Franck Mansour, Yenon, Achiè Aurélie, Vanie, Bi Foua Jonas, Alain, Dit Philippe Bidié, Djaman, Allico Joseph

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i130053

Entandrophragma angolense is a plant of the family Meliaceae of African pharmacopoeia. It is used in traditional medicine as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory in cases of abdominal or hips pain. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of E. angolense and vitamin B12 on hemolytic induced anemia and inflammation in the rat. Anemia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of phenylhydrazine at the dose of 40 mg / kg / day for two days in 24 Wistar rats, followed by aqueous extract of E. angolense and vitamin B12 chosen as reference molecule administered orally to rats once a day for 28 days. A biological assessment on blood count, CRP and the study of secondary metabolites of the aqueous extract of E. angolense have been realized. The results obtained showed the existence of anemia characterized by a significant decrease (p <0.01) of the hemoglobin level of 42.80% ± 3.09 and red blood cells of 44.21% ± 3.16 in rats, and inflammation revealed by the significantly elevated CRP assay (p <0.05). The aqueous extract of E. angolense at the dose of 200 mg / kg increased significantly (p <0.001) the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin at the 4th week of treatment compared to the vitamin B12.

In conclusion, the aqueous extract of the plant has an anti-inflammatory and anti-anemic effect. This double physiological action could come from the phytochemicals (flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids) contained in the extract.