Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Efficacy of Phytochemical Content of Corchorus olitorius Leaves against Acute Ethanol-induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Ogbonnaya Ewa, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Olaide O. Awosanya, Olukule A. Adekale

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i230054

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the ameliorative efficacy of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

Methods: Fresh plants of C. olitorius were harvested from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. The leaves were dried and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and methanol as the solvent. The methanol was evaporated in a rotary evaporator at 35°C with a yield of 2.17 g which represents a percentage yield of 8.68%. Twenty adult male Wistar rats with body weight between 120 and 150 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided into four groups of five rats each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered saline solution while those in groups 3 and 4 were administered C. olitorius extract for twenty-one days. The animals were administered the extract and saline solution at a dose of 4 mL per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route of administration. At the end of the treatment, they were fasted overnight and animals in groups 2 and 4 were exposed to a single dose of 70% ethanol at 12 ml/kg body weight to induce oxidative stress. After 12 hours of ethanol administration, the animals were anaesthetized using diethyl ether and were sacrificed. Liver was excised, weighed and homogenized in 50 mmol/L Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and then centrifuged at 5000 × g for 15 minutes for biochemical analysis. Supernatants were immediately kept frozen for further analysis.

Results: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress significantly increased the activities of AST, ALT, LDH, LPO, CAT, SOD and GPX but decrease GSH.  These effects were regulated by C. olitorius administration.

Conclusion: C. olitorius was able to remedy the effect of ethanol by regulating the oxidative stress biomarkers, thus possesses ameliorative efficacy against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and can protect the body against free radicals arising from oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of PDCD1 (PD-1) Gene among Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Patients with Real-Time PCR Application

Seyed Mohammad Amin Ahmadpanah, Mohammadreza Ghanbari, Seyed Alireza Janani, Fahimeh Nemati

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i230055

Background: PD-L1 is the main ligand is expressed on many tumors including lung cancer and is expressed in hematopoietic cells and various leukemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PD-1 gene and the evaluation of cancerous grades of NSCLC and its subclasses from lung cancer patients in Tehran hospitals using Real-Time PCR.

Materials and Methods: A total of 35 clinical samples were collected from patients with NSCLC-derived lung cancer from three hospitals in Tehran (Khatam Hospital, Athiyah Hospital, and Masih Hospital). Of the 35 samples collected in 2017, 20% of the patients were women and 80% of them were male. The range of patients’ age spectrum was 37 - 80 years. The disease grade of the patients in this study was varied and 22 different grades among them. To investigate the PDCD-1 gene expression level, after extraction of RNA and cDNA synthesis the Real-Time PCR was done and the expression of the gene was investigated.

Results: The highest grade was IIIa which contained 6 patients (17.1%). 74% of adenocarcinoma cases were in T-categories of lung cancer and 25% of patients were in grade IIIa. Patients with the grade of T3 were observed in 4 samples, 2 had adenocarcinoma and 2 with SCC with age range of 55 -62 years. The results showed that the expression of PDCD-1 increased 2.46 Fold more in patients with lung cancer than NSCLC.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there is a significant relationship between the PDCD1 or PD-1 expression of NSCLC-type lung cancer compared with healthy individuals, and using the RT-PCR for ease and rapidity it can be proved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Association of FOLH1 rs61886494 and DISC1 rs12133766 loci in Iranian Schizophrenia Patients

Azizi Parisa, Azizi Faryal, Nemati Fahimeh

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i230056

Background: The aim of this study was to identification of polymorphisms of FOLH1 and DISC1 genes in Iranian patients with schizophrenia.

Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls were evaluated. PCR-RFLP and Tetra-ARMS method used for detection of FOLH1 and DISC1 gene respectively in both of patients and control groups.

Results: The frequency of CC, CT, and TT genotypes for FOLH1 gene in rs61886494 locus in schizophrenic patients was 92%, 8%, and 0%, respectively, and in healthy subjects, 94%, 0%, and 6%, respectively. The frequency of DISC gene in GG genotype was higher than that of normal people and frequency of GA genotype was lower than normal subjects. In addition, the genotype AA was identified only in patients.

Conclusion: For FOLH1 gene in rs61886494 locus, the frequency of CC and TT genotypes in patients was 2% and 6% lower in healthy people, while CT genotype in patients was 8% higher in healthy people. Interestingly, TT genotype was not observed in patients and CT genotype in healthy people was not observed. Regarding the DISC1 gene, the results showed that the frequency of homozygous GG and GA homozygote genotypes in the patients was higher in the rs12133766 locus, while the heterozygote GA was high in healthy subjects and was not observed in patients. Therefore, the result of this study in our country can provide suitable method for diagnosis and prevention of schizophrenia patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antimalarial Properties of Ficus platyphylla Del Leaf Extract in Mice

J. Omame, A. E. Amobonye, A. Y. Kabiru

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i230057

Aim: This study was aim at investigating the effect of crude petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus platyphylla Del on Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out at the department of biochemistry, Federal university of technology minna, Niger state Nigeria in 2014.

Methodology: The crude plant extract of F. platyphylla was administered 72 hours at different doses post and pre infection for both the curative and prophylactic study respectively against residual infection. Mice were divided into 5 groups of 5 mice each, 3 of the groups where administered crude plants extract of F. platyphaylla at different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) while the other two serve as negative and positive control group and were administered 0.5 ml and 50 mg/kg body weight respectively.

Results: The extract at all doses produced significant (P<0.05) dose dependent chemo-suppressive activity with %  inhibition of 38%, 61%, 74% and 81.8% for curative studies and 36.0%, 38.5%, 49.5% and 63.4% for prophylactic studies against the parasites at doses of 200 mg/kgbw, 400 mg/kgbw, 600 mg/kgbw of the extract and 50 mg/kgbw of Artesunate. All doses of the extract increased the survival time of the infected mice compared to the negative control group that was administered 0.5 ml normal saline. The variation in the values of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) for treated group before and after extract administration was not significant at (P<0.05). The phytochemical screening of the plant extract showed the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, anthroquinone and phenol.

Conclusion: The result of this study shows that F. Platyphylla leaf extract exhibited some antiplasmodial activity that could be exploited for safe, effective and affordable antimalaria regimen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Markers and Hormonal Profiles in Women Diagnosed with Infertility in Port Harcourt

Olofinshawo, Olanrewaju Lawrence, Bartimaeus, Ebirien-Agana Samuel, Davies, Tamuno-Emine Gabriel

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i230058

Aim: The study evaluates the contribution of oxidative stress and fertility hormones to female infertility in Port Harcourt.

Methodology: A total of 140 women aged 15 – 49 years consisting 70 apparently healthy infertile women who are attending diagnostic fertility clinics in Port Harcourt as test subjects and 70 age-matched healthy fertile women as control were recruited. Subjects were recruited using structured questionnaires after given their informed consent. The levels of Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation index, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone and estrogen of infertile and the fertile (control) subjects were determined by standard procedures.

Results: There was statistically significant increase in lipid peroxidation index in the test subjects than in the fertile group (p<0.05). Total antioxidant capacity showed a statistically reduced value in the test subjects than in the control at p<0.05. Lipid peroxidation index was significantly increased  in test subjects exposed to oxidant agents like alcohol, infections and ulcer than their counterparts who were not exposed to any of the agents (p<0.05). Also significantly elevated lipid peroxidation was observed in test subjects with normal hormone levels compared to those with hormone imbalance (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The outcome of this study suggests that the infertility being experienced by some of the infertile women in Port Harcourt are due not only to endocrine dysfunction, but some order conditions that induce oxidative stress. Thus investigation of oxidative parameters is highly suggested as an adjunct for effective management of unexplained infertility in women. Further studies on estimation of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GHR) are recommended to validate reliability.