Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variability and Diversity Analysis in Pod and Seed Characters of Some Neglected and Underutilized Legumes (NULs)

J. O. Agbolade, T. P. Olakunle, K. M. Popoola, J. A. Idowu, A. I. Isiaka, A. D. Aasa-Sadique

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i330059

In response to the paucity of information challenge on the neglected and underutilized legumes, this paper explored pods and seeds morphological data of the twenty-four accessions of these crops with a view to establishing the occurrence of genetic variability and diversity analysis among the studied taxa. Twenty-four accessions of neglected and underutilized legumes (NULs) obtained from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria were assessed for genetic variability and diversity analysis through Pod and seed morphological characters. Each accession was planted into plot of 5 ridges of 5 meter long, spaced 1 meter apart and replicated three times at the teaching and research farm of the Federal University Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics was employed to evaluate differences in the mean values of the accessions while discriminatory traits among accessions were identified by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Similarities among the studied plants were assessed by cluster analysis. The first two principal component axes explained 72% of the total variation. Pod length, pod width and 100-seed weight were traits that contributed most of the variations in the legume accessions. There was a display of intra-species similarities and inter-specific genetic diversity among the studied accessions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effects of Viscum album Combined with Garcinia kola against CCL4 Induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats

Roseline Emeji, Tamuno-Emine Davies Gabriel, Bosia Ndokiari

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i330060

This study was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of Viscum album (mistletoe) and Garcinia kola seed (bitter kola) in treating Rat liver against CCl4-induced liver injury. Mistletoe and bitter Kola are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders, including hepatic disorders. Biochemical parameters and histological structure were assessed and used as a measure of the therapeutic potential of the herbs against CCl4 induced liver injury. The experimental animals (15 male wistar albino rats) weighing between 100-120 g were randomly divided into three (3) groups. Each group comprised 5 rats and was labeled as group 1, 2 or 3. Group 1 (negative control) animals were administered saline orally daily for 6 weeks (1 ml volume per kg body weight) while group 2 (CCl4 group) animals were administered CCl4 mixed with olive oil as vehicle in 1:1 ratio (3 ml/kg body weight). Group 3 represented the treatment group with extracts of the two herbal plants (250 mg/kg daily). The combination of the herbal extracts administered orally for 6weeks showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum protein, albumin, total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin concentrations and in serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT compared with CCl4-induced increases in concentrations or activities of the aforementioned biochemical parameters. Histological examination of the liver of CCl4–treated rats with the combined herbal extracts showed less destruction of liver architecture in comparison to the group induced with CCl4 only. The results indicated that the combination herbal extracts investigated (mistletoe and bitter kola) had therapeutic effect against CCL4-induced liver injury when used either in combination and this effect could be due to the phytochemicals present in the herbs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms Growing on the Root of Leguminous Plants (Groundnut, Soya bean and Pea)

Bukola Catherine Akin-Osanaiye, Oluwatobi Olaife Arowolo, Ifeyomi Wilfred Olobayotan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i330061

Study on the isolation and identifications of bacteria associated with the root of legumes were conducted using Spread Plate Technique. The frequencies of occurrences of the bacteria isolate showed that a total of sixteen (16) bacteria belonging to three genera and four species were isolated from the leguminous plants. Maximum number recovered from sample collected from the root of groundnut was seven (7) followed by Soya bean with five (5) while Pea recorded the least number of four (4). Role of Bacillus subtilis in the soil around the leguminous plant was the highest, which covered about 37.50% of the total isolates. Other bacteria that were also isolated from the soil around the legumes root include Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus which covered about four (4) each representing 25.0% of the total isolates while Pseudomonas aeruginosa recorded the least value of 12.50%. The bacteria isolated from the root of the legumes were not significantly different (P < 0.05). The bacteria have Nitrogen-fixing potential, having isolated from three leguminous plants which include Soya bean, Groundnut and Pea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Fusarium spp. Associated with Potato Tubers in Upper Egypt by Morphological and Molecular Characters

Youssuf A. Gherbawy, Mohamed A. Hussein, Eman G. A. El-Dawy, Nabila A. Hassany, Saad A. Alamri

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i330062

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important crop which holds promise for food security considering the global population growth rate. Fusarium dry rot is one of the most significant diseases of potato. To build up strategies for the control of this disease, it ought to be made primarily a correct diagnosis and identification of the pathogen. A total of 504 Fusarium isolates were recovered from potato tubers collected from Upper Egypt. Fusarium isolates were identified based on morphology and partial DNA sequencing of β-tubulin (TUB) genes. 62.5% of the isolates were identified as F. sambucinum, followed F. oxysporum (57.5%), then F. verticillioides (56.25%) and F. incarnatum (47.5%). All the tested Fusarium species were able to produce amylase. The pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by inoculation of healthy potato tubers; all of the tested isolates were pathogenic to healthy potato tubers. F. sambucinum had a highly virulent effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contamination of Tributyltin Compounds on Shellfish Uses Tolerable Average Residue Levels on Pulau Pramuka Kepulauan Seribu

Seali Lismaryanti, Zahidah ., Asep Sahidin, Herman Hamdani

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2019/v2i330063

Aims: This research is aimed to know the contamination of tributyltin (TBT) compounds on shellfish uses TARL. To determine the level of contamination in seafood, shellfish use the weight of an average person.

Place and Duration of Study: Ecology Laboratory and Central Laboratory, Padjadjaran University from January until April 2019.

Methodology: The research was conducted purposive sampling consisted of 3 different location with a total 98 shell. Tributyltin analysis is to determine the level of tributyltin contamination in shellfish which can affect an individual in consuming tributyltin-contaminated shells. The results were statistically analyzed TARL carried out and analyzed descriptively.

Results: 8 species of shellfish have been identified, Tellina virgata, Perna viridis, Anadara granosa, Anadara antiquata, Fragum unedo, Fimbria fimbricata, Gafrarium tumidum and Tridacna squamosa. The number of bivalves found was different at each station. The total number of shells identified in all 98 individuals from the three stations, Anadara granosa species is the dominant species found, this is because Anadara granosa shells can live in different types of habitats and their existence tends to dominate the open, coastal and estuary waters. The results of tributyltin analysis on shellfish showed TBT contamination in shellfish, each research location found different concentrations of tributyltin. Muara Angke pier was found to be the highest TBT concentration in meat in Perna viridis at 0.170 ± 0.0192 ng.g-1. From available TBT analysis data, the estimated daily TBT intake to the average person who likes seafood on Pramuka Island with a bodyweight of 60 kg is 0.54-10.2 ng TBT.person-1.day-1 through shellfish consumption. Although this value is still far from the threshold of a tolerable value of 15 g.person-1.day-1. The estimated daily intake of TBT through seafood products in Indonesia is among the lowest compared to developed countries, such as Japan (3000-100000 g.person-1.day-1), Canada (<610-15000 g.person-1.day-1), USA (4000-45000 g.person-1.day-1), Finland (970-9700 g.person-1.day-1) and some Asian countries such as Thailand (228-45714 through shellfish consumption and the Philippines (2361-68312 through shellfish). Several things that affect daily consumption per capita in determining TARL are based on average values. This implies, that some populations consume more seafood products (fishermen, people who have a preference for consuming fish) than the average so that there is a greater risk of seafood that has been contaminated with tributyltin. Then TARL is based on the average person weighing 60 kg. A person with a lighter weight will receive relatively more compound tributyltin per kg of body weight.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the research is the contamination of tributyltin compounds in shellfish seafood by 0.170 ng.g-1 with an estimated daily intake of TBT to the average person who likes seafood on Pramuka Island with a bodyweight of 60 kg is 0.54-10.2 ng TBT.person-1.day-1 through shellfish consumption.