Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Productive Traits and Relationship between Breeds of Cattle (Friesian Bunaji Cross, Bunaji and Sokoto Gudali) Using Blood Biochemical Polymorphism

D. S. Bunjah, Umar, B. I. Nwagu, U. A. Umar, O. O. Rufina, I. Saleh

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 13-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i130075

We studied the blood haemoglobin polymorphism and activity in relation to body morphology and milk traits in Nigerian indigenous breeds of cattle. A total of 150 animals, 50 per breed of the Bunaji, Friesian X Bunaji and Gudali were used to study the relationship between breeds. Variables measured were BW: Body weight (Kg); BL: Body Length (Cm); HW: Height at withers (cm); CW: Chest width (cm); HG: Heart Girth (cm); Rumwi: Rump width (cm); TL: Teat Length (cm); RUH: Rear Udder Height (cm); UC: Udder Circumference (cm); TY: Total Yield (Litres); ADY: Average Daily Yield (Litres/day) and LL: Lactation Length (days) and blood protein polymorphism of the Haemoglobin. Observed results showed overall frequencies of 0.62 (HbA) and 0.48 (HbB). Higher frequencies of the A allele (0.52, 0.54 and 0.68) were obtained respectively for the Bunaji, Friesian X Bunaji and Gudali cattle in the Haemoglobin locus. Study of blood protein polymorphism and productivity indicated significant (p<0.05) influence of the haemoglobin. There is a need for a genetic study using other proteins and at DNA level to compliment the results arisen from morphometric differentiation of the two most populous Nigerian breeds of cattle in the NAPRI herd.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enterotoxigenicity of Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Dry Catfish Sold in Some Open Markets in Zaria - Nigeria

Joseph O. Oko, Gbonjubola O. Adeshina, Josiah A. Onaolapo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 22-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i130076

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the enterotoxigenic potential of MDR S. aureus isolated from dry catfish sold in some open markets in Zaria, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and Central Laboratory, City Campus of the Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria, from December 2017 to March 2019.

Methodology: We collected five, each of multidrug resistant and susceptible S. aureus isolates from the Pharmaceutical Microbiology Laboratory of the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and confirmed them as S. aureus. Cell concentrates were harvested from 24 hours old Luria and Bertani (LB) pure broth culture of S. aureus isolates by centrifugation at 4°C, 8000 rpm (6800 × g) in a micro-centrifuge for two minutes at room temperature. We used ZymoBIOMICS™ DNA Miniprep Kits to extract the genomic DNA from the harvested cells. We used PCR to amplify the 16S RNA, mecA and the enterotoxin genes after an external optimization of the reaction to ensure a better amplification. Finally, we used exactly two percent agarose gel to resolve the PCR genomic DNA fragments with their primers.

Results: The results of the PCR and gel electrophoresis indicated that all the ten (10) strains of S. aureus tested for 16S rDNA gene where positive for the gene whereas only two strains (20%) out of the ten (10) were positive for mecA gene. Among the ten (10) strains of S. aureus, tested, four (40%) strains were positive for two or more staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. All but one phenotypic multidrug resistant isolates carried genes for enterotoxins whereas, phenotypically drug susceptible isolates showed no band for enterotoxins.

Conclusion: This study showed that enterotoxin genes were common amongst the antibiotics resistant strains, which indicated a possibility of a relationship between antibiotics resistance and enterotoxogenicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Kinship of Nilem Fish Strains (Osteochillus hasselti)

Yuli Andriani, Ibnu Dwi Buwono, Ujang Subhan, Arini Mandhasia

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i130077

The research aims to analyze the kinship of nilem fish strains using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). This research used exploratory method with descriptive analysis. The primers used in the RAPD method are OPA-02 (5'-TGCCGAGCTG-3 '), OPA-03 (5'-AGTCAGCCAC-'3), OPA-05 (5'-AGGGGTCTTG-3') and OPA-11 (5) 5'- CAATCGCCGT-3 '). The primary optimization results showed that OPA-02 and OPA-11 were the primary primers for detecting polymorphic and monomorphic fragments of the nilem fish genome. Phenograms from the RAPD method that were processed through the NTSYS-pc program showed that the OPA-02 primer was the best primer for nilem kinship analysis. Relationship between red nilem with green nilem is 92%, red nilem and green nilem with mangot nilem are 72% and the three nilem with beureum panon are 12%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression Pattern of Mitogen-inducible Gene 6 in Relation to the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway and Redox Status in Patients with Endometriosis

Nada Hashem Ayad, Hanaa Hibishy Gaballah, Hesham Abd El-Aziz Salem, Sobhy Abd El-Hamid Hassan, Safwat Mohamed Kasem

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 38-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i130078

Background: Endometriosis is a gynecological disorder characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrium outside the uterus. It is a multi-factorial disease, where different processes facilitate the implantation and survival of ectopic endometrial tissue. 

The Aim: This study aims to evaluate the levels of the expression patterns of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues of endometriosis patients and their relevance to the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) and redox status.

Methods: Relative gene expression levels of Mig-6 and the levels of pERK1/2 were assessed in endometrial tissues of control group and in both eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues of endometriosis patients .Serum levels of total protein thiols and total protein carbonyls were also assessed in endometriosis and control groups.

Results: Relative gene expression levels of Mig- 6 showed significant lower values in endometriosis group as compared to control group, and they were associated with significant increase in pERK 1/2 levels and altered redox status.

Conclusion: These data, signified a significant role of downregulated Mig-6 expression, and activated ERK 1/2 signaling in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Moreover, it suggested that oxidative stress indicated by high protein carbonyls level contributes to the pathogenesis of endometriosis and that protein thiols have a defensive role against oxidative stress.

Open Access Review Article

Pathogen Inducible cis-acting Elements of Synthetic Promoters in Plants-review

Rashmi Hegde

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i130074

Synthetic pathogen inducible promoters are used for the improvement and application of transgenic techniques in research and to increase agriculture production.  The promoter contains specific cis-regulatory elements (W box, GCC box, Box S and D box) which induce anti pathogen molecular cascades. Insertion of dimerized form of cis acting elements at upstream region of promoter in promoter probe vector drives the expression of resistance gene or reporter gene. The expression indicates that synthetic promoters are responded to fungal elicitors. Expression of resistance restrict to infection sites which boost disease resistance in plants.