Open Access Original Research Article

Modulatory Effects of Some Fruit Juices on Lipid Profile in Rats Fed with High Lipid Diet

Habibu Tijjani, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i230079

Background: Hyperlipidemia is a predisposing factor to several cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart attacks and others.

Aim: This study investigate the hypolipidemic properties of five selected fruits using rats pre-fed with High Lipid Diet (HLD) under experimental conditions.

Methods: Raw fruit juices from Guava (Psidium guajava), Pawpaw (Carica papaya), Banana (Musa acuminata), Apple (Pyrus malus) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) respectively, were administered orally at a dose of 7 ml/kg body weight for 14 days. Sera from the experimental rats were prepared for total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) assay, while Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Atherogenic Index (AI) were computed.

Results: Feeding the experimental rats with High Lipid Diet increased their levels of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and AI by 68.73%, 72.94%, 20.23%, 71.79% and 208.72% respectively with a corresponding decrease in HDL by 29.47%. Pineapple juice significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and AI by 84.44%, 69.39%, 95.19%, 70.15% and 96.99% respectively. Guava, banana and apple treated groups produced 56.72%, 23.88% and 07.46% increase in HDL respectively, with a non-significant (p<0.05) value in pawpaw treated group, when compared to the HLD untreated control. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and steroids in all fruit juices and the absence of balsams and phenols.

Conclusion: Consumption of the selected fruit juices improved lipid profile and reduced the risk associated with hyperlipidemia in experimental rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties and Protective Effect of Aqueous Anti-Ulcer Drug (AQAUD) against Aspirin-induced Gastric Ulcers in Albino Rats

B. A. Mba, C. S. Alisi, A. C. Ene

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i230081

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective effects of aqueous anti-ulcer drug (AQAUD) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in albino rats.

Methods: In this study, 30 male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 each. Rats in group I served as normal control and received food and water. Animals in group II received food and water in addition to aspirin (400 mg/kg.b.wt) orally on the 14th day. Rats in groups III, IV and V received “AQAUD” (250 mg/kg.b.wt), (500 mg/kg.b.wt) and Omeprazole (20 mg/kg.b.wt) respectively for 14 days and aspirin (400 mg/kg.b.wt) orally on the 14th day. In vitro antioxidant property of “AQAUD” was assessed by its nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging properties. The ulcer protective effect of “AQAUD” was assessed by determining the free and total acidity, ulcer index and % protection in the stomach content. The antioxidant potential in animals was evaluated by determining the concentrations of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were assayed in the stomach homogenates to further assess antioxidant potential. Total phenolics and flavonoid compounds were quantified to know the antioxidant content. Histopathological assessment of the gastric mucosa was used to assess the protective potentials of “AQAUD”. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.

Results: The results revealed that free acidity and ulcer indexes were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by “AQAUD”. There was a significant decrease in SOD activity of the stomach homogenates when compared to the aspirin group, with values for “AQAUD” 250 mg/kg.b.wt and “AQAUD” 500 mg/kg b.wt as 37.24±5.39ux10-2/mg protein and 23.64±2.91ux10-2/mg protein respectively. Result of acute toxicity testing showed that “AQAUD” is generally safe up to 5000 mg/kg b.wt.

Conclusion: The results revealed that treatment with aspirin caused loss of gland architecture with erosion of epithelial layer, but AQAUD treatment ameliorated the effect of aspirin administration. The study revealed that “AQAUD” has considerable antioxidant potentials and can effectively protect against gastric ulcers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rheology and Acceptance of Pap (Zea mays) Enriched with Jatropha carcus Leaves to Improve Iron Status in Children

A. I. Asouzu, N. N. Umerah

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 22-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i230082

This study was carried out to determine the Rheology and acceptance of            Pap (Zea mays) enriched with Jatropha carcus leaves to improve iron status in Children. The blends of pap slurry and Jatropha curcas leaves was made at substitution level of 70:30 respectively. However, the sample formulation was coded as sample A for 100% pap, B for 100% Jatropha curcas leaves and sample C for 70% pap and 30% Jatropha curcas leaves. Sensory evaluation was conducted on the gruel made from the samples to test acceptability.  All samples were subjected to laboratory analysis for proximate, mineral, anti-nutrients, viscocity and functional properties using standard method and thereafter, the results obtained were further subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The result showed that the proximate composition of the samples ranged from 11.82 to 43.31% for moisture, fibre 2.71 to 10.20%, protein 3.24 to 6.28%, carbohydrate 41.61 to 61.55% and energy 250.10 to 401.50 kcal. The minerals were also ranged from 4.62 to 10.04 mg/100 g for iron, magnesium 62.55 to 112.01 mg/100 g, zinc 0.03 to 0.67 mg/100 g and calcium 44.21 to 110.28 mg/100 g. The anti-nutrients were found to be tannin 0.03 to 2.67 mg/100 g, phytate 0.34 to 1.11 mg/100 g, oxalate 0.91 to 2.64 mg/100 g, and saponin 0.00 to 1.24 mg/100 g. The study however showed that the functional properties of 100% pap and the pap fortified with Jatropha carcus leaves were water absorption capacity 65.78 and 52.68%, oil absorption capacity 140.20 and 120.00%, and foaming capacity 22.45 and 28.01% respectively. The panelist preferred the 100% pap than the pap enriched with Jatropha curcas leaves.  This study has revealed an increase in iron, magnesium and zinc which shows that fortification of pap with Jatropha curcas leaves will enhance the iron status of the populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Malting on Nutritional Characteristics of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan)

A. I. Asouzu, N. N. Umerah

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 35-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i230083

Background/Objective: Malting is a process that is not expensive and is technologically effective in improving the nutritional quality of food. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of malting on the nutritional characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

Materials and Methods: The pigeon pea seeds were sorted and washed. The seeds were then steeped in water at 29°C for 24 hours. Changing of water at 6 hours interval was observed during steeping. The resultant steeped seeds were spread on jute bag and were covered with white cotton cloth to germinate for 72 hours. The sprouted seeds were oven dried at a temperature of 50°C for 1 hour and thereafter, the plumules were separated from the seed and the malted seeds were dried and milled into flour. Both the raw and malted samples were subjected to laboratory analysis for proximate, mineral element composition, anti-nutrients and functional properties. The results were determined in triplicate and subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS version 20.

Results: The result of the proximate analysis showed that the samples were generally low in moisture which are 12.81±0.07 and 15.10±0.81%, protein content are 19.01±0.08 and 22.10±0.16%, Ash content are 2.27±0.23 and 3.18±0.47%, Fat content are 1.02±0.32 and 1.68±0.81%, fibre content are 0.45±0.52 and 1.23±0.63%, carbohydrate are 57.37±0.28 and 63.78±0.01% and energy were 300.32 and 326.20 Kcal/100 g for raw and malted sample respectively. The result of minerals are iron 0.13±0.12 and 1.03±0.08 mg/100 g, magnesium 50.30±0.01 and 68.24±0.45 mg/100 g, zinc 0.27±0.21 an 0.88±0.32 mg/100 g, phosphorus 13.10±0.57 and 18.30±0.32 mg/100 g, potassium 2.10±0.62 and 4.50±0.08 mg/100 g, sodium 6.10±0.31 and 9.33±0.07 mg/100 g and calcium 7.28±0.41 and 10.11±0.22 mg/100 g for raw and malted sample respectively. The anti-nutrients determined are phytate 19.86±0.03 and 7.22±0.78 mg/100 g, oxalate 1.78±0.03 and 0.02±0.42 mg/100 g, trypsin inhibitor 40.53±0.42 and 10.30 m±0.07 g/100 g, tannins 28.80±0.50 and 9.12±0.18 mg/100 g and hydrogen cyanide 1.63±0.68 and 0.68±0.04 mg/100 g, for the raw and malted pigeon pea respectively. The functional properties are Bulk density 0.62±0.81 and 0.98±0.01 g/cm3, water absorption capacity 227.05±0.24 and 261.220.38%, oil absorption capacity 162.72±0.11 and 170.54%±0.42, foaming capacity 18.80±0.28 and 37.73±0.21% and swelling capacity 4.08±0.13 and 6.24±0.31%.

Conclusion: It was observed that highly nutritious flour can be produced from pigeon pea using malting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterobacteria Responsible for Urinary Tract Infections in Benin: Another Way to Control Antimicrobial Resistance

Victorien Dougnon, Phénix Assogba, Jean-Pierre Gnimatin, Jerrold Agbankpé, Hornel Koudokpon, Esther Déguénon, Kafayath Fabiyi, The Global Taskforce for AMR Control Consortium, Sèdami Romarique Médégan Fagla, Yêyinou Laura Estelle Loko, Omédine Koukoui, Luc Djogbenou, Jacques Dougnon, Honoré Bankolé, Lamine Baba- Moussa

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 48-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i230084

Background: Infectious diseases are serious public health issue both in developing countries and industrialized nations. In developing countries, they are the main cause of high mortality rates. In the second group, existing resistance strains to antibiotics is developing and growing at an alarming rate. The purpose of this study was to produce data of national interest to implement sustainable control program against the spread of antimicrobial resistance strains in Benin.

Methods: One hundred and ninety (190) urine samples were collected in selected hospitals in Benin from patients with urinary tract infection. After getting the informed consent from the patients, samples collections were performed under aseptic conditions and cultured for further analysis in the laboratory. The resistance profile of the bacterial strains was established. The search for beta-lactamase production by the isolates was performed using the synergy test for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cephalosporins. Mathematical modeling for predicting the development of resistance of the strains by the year 2024 was carried out employing the compartmental deterministic models.

Results: Two hundred and thirty (230) strains were identified from the urine samples. Male individuals were the most affected by urinary tract infections. Individuals between the ages of 21-30 were predominantly infected. E. coli was the most isolated species (32.43%) in the urine samples, followed by K. pneumoniae (26.85%) and E. cloacae (25.92%). The susceptibility testing of isolates showed a high resistance to amoxicillin (91.82%). Whereas the lowest resistance was to imipenem (2%). The beta-lactamase was produced by 24.03% of the strains. Escherichia coli (32.43%) was the most productive of broad spectrum beta-lactamase, followed by K. pneumoniae (31.03%). The mathematical modeling revealed a rampant rise in resistance development of the strains to the tested antibiotics.

Conclusions: These results provide important data for developing new preventive strategies against the evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. It therefore, further deserves a constructive advocacy so that more actions are taken against the rampant spread of antimicrobial resistance strains in our health facilities as well as in the communities.