Open Access Original Research Article

A Potential Pathological Role of Wingless Type1 Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein-1 and Betatrophin in Obese Women with Polyststic Ovary Syndrome

Abrar Gomaa Abd-Elfatah Hassan, Mohammed Ali Mohammed Mohammed, Doaa Mohammed Mohammed Abd-Elatif, Ashraf Taha Abd-Elmouttaleb Mohammed

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i330085

Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common female endocrinopathy. It is associated with adipokines dysfunctional secretion pattern and insulin resistance, which is considered as the main reason for its clinical feature. Wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 is a novel adipokine that displays insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation where it strongly related to adipocyte accumulation and regeneration. Betatrophin has a potential role in pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and obesity and several studies showed inconsistent betatrophin levels in patients with diabetes and obesity but, its relation to polycystic ovary syndrome is unclear.

Aim: Investigation of the role of serum wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 and betatrophin in normal weight and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Studying their association with other markers, then determine whether obesity and insulin resistance is associated with them.

Methods: Wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 and betatrophin serum levels were measured in 44 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (22 obese and 22 non-obese) and 44 matched control (22 obese and 22 non-obese) females using specific ELISA kits. 

Results: Betatrophin and wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 levels were elevated in the polycystic ovary syndrome group (49.4 pg/ml, 187.6 pg/ml) than in the control group (32.08 pg/ml, 108.4 pg/ml) respectively. Moreover, their levels were higher in the obese subgroup than in normal weight subgroup. There were positive correlations between wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 and betatrophin in non-obese (r=0.89, p=0.0001***) and in obese (r=0.78, p=0.0001***) polycystic ovary syndrome groups.

Conclusion: Betatrophin and wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 are associated with adiposity and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hence wingless type1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 and betatrophin may play a role in the incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome. They may be valuable in diagnosis and prediction of polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Hepatoprotective Potential of Aqueous Fruit Pulp Extract of Adansonia digitata against CCL4 Induced Liver Damage in Rats

A. M. Sa’id, A. H. Musa, J. A. Mashi, F. U. Maigari, M. N. Nuhu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i330086

Aim: The current study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in  rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Science, between November 2017 and January 2018.

Methodology: A. digitata fruit pulp was extracted by maceration using water; and a concentration of 100 mg/ml was used. Two doses of the aqueous extract (200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and Livoline (25 mg/kg) were used to investigate their hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, as evident by the significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin along with the improved histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-treated animals.

Conclusion: Due to its hepatoprotective potentials, A. digitata extract may be used to develop standard treatment drugs against some liver disorders when it is further evaluated through extensive researches.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sex Hormones Levels in Male Welders in Nnewi, South-Eastern Nigeria

C. H. Udeogu, I. S. I. Ogbu, A. N. Mbachu, M. C. Ugwu, O. F. Odo, O. Ugwu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 22-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i330087

Welding processes produce toxic fumes consisting of gaseous and aerosol by-products which pose a risk to the male reproductive systems. The rate of infertility has increased globally. This study therefore sought to assess the effects of welding fume inhalation on the sex hormones of welders in Nnewi. A site-by-site cross-sectional study of 45 welders (aged between 18 and 50 years) who were exposed to welding fumes (Test group) and 45 age-matched non-welders (Control group) was carried out. The ages of the Test and Control subjects, as well as the years of exposure of the Test subjects were obtained via questionnaire. A single non-fasting venous blood (about 5 mls) was collected from the ante-cubital space from the subjects via venipuncture between 8:00 AM and 11:00 AM. Serum was separated following clotting, and used for the investigation of the levels of male sex hormones: Testosterone (T), Progesterone (P), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) among welders. Sex hormones were assayed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The results showed that Testosterone (2.45±0.34 ng/ml) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in welders when compared to controls (4.94±0.81 ng/ml) and significantly increased (p<0.05) levels of Progesterone (0.54±0.09 ng/ml) and LH (7.47±1.56 mIU/L) were found in welders compared with controls Progesterone (0.45±0.08 ng/ml) and LH (5.53±1.05 mIU/L). There was no significant difference in the levels of FSH of the test when compared with the controls. This finding of altered hormone levels indicates a likelihood of reduced reproductive outcome. Exposure to welding fume may therefore interfere with testicular functions leading to disordered reproductive performance, delayed conception, and reduced fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Potential of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Carica papaya Leaves

Augustine I. Airaodion, John A. Ekenjoku, Ime U. Akaninyene, Anthony U. Megwas

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i330088

Background: The search for newer sources of antibiotics is a global challenge pre-occupying research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and academia, since many infectious agents are becoming resistant to synthetic drugs.

Aim: This present study sought to investigate the antibacterial potential of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Carica papaya leaves.

Materials and Methods: Fresh and healthy leaves of C. papaya were harvested, air dried and milled into powder. The powder was extracted using ethanol and water as solvents. The antibacterial activities of both extracts were determined by diffusion method. Nutrient agar medium was prepared using standard method. Pure cultures of Coliform bacillus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus viridans, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were obtained from the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The extracts were serially diluted to obtain 1.0%, 0.5%, 0.25% and 0.125% solutions in sterile test tubes. Sterilized 9 mm filter paper disc soaked in the diluted extracts were placed on the plate and incubated for 24 hours at room temperature. The plates were examined for clear zones of inhibition. Presence of zones of inhibition indicated activity.

Results: the results showed that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaves exhibit antibacterial activities against C. bacillus, S. epidemidis, S. viridans and E. coli and also inhibited their growth. The effect of the ethanolic extract was greater than that of the aqueous extract. However, this activity was not observed with S. typhi.

Conclusion: The result of the present study showed that C. papaya leaves might effectively inhibit the growth of C. bacillus, S. epidemidis, S. viridans and E. coli but not that of S. typhi. However, the ethanolic extract is more potent than the aqueous extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Studies on Antioxidant Potential of Aqueous Extract of Bridelia ferruginea Stem Bark in Brain and Liver of Wistar-albino Rats using Sodium Nitroprusside as Pro-oxidant

Adesola Oluwaseun Adeleye

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i330089

Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay was used to study the antioxidant potential of Bridelia ferruginea, a widely used medicinal plant in Nigeria, sub-tropical Africa and parts of Asia. The aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark showed inhibition against the formation of TBARS induced by the pro-oxidant, sodium nitroprusside, in the liver and brain tissue homogenates of the locally bred male and female albino-Wistar rats. The inhibition of TBARS is an indication of the antioxidant potential of the plant extract. The extent of antioxidant potential depends on concentrations, showing varying degrees of inhibition with different concentrations. It showed a 54.16% inhibition in the liver and 60.65% in the brain, both at a concentration of 0.33 mg/ml, with IC50 values of 3.00 ± 1.58 mg/ml and 2.99 ± 1.59 mg/ml for the liver and brain homogenates respectively. The results suggest the effectiveness of the aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea stem bark in reversing the effect of lipid peroxidation that may result from sodium nitroprusside overload.