Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Identification for Bacteriocin Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Selected Fermented Foods

I. H. Abdulkarim, S. S. D. Mohammed, A. A. Orukotan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i430090

Bacteriocin genes are biosynthetic genes which encodes proteins involved in bacteriocin regulation, self-immunity, transport and modification. This research was aimed at identifying the gene for the synthesis of bacteriocin. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from fermented foods (Nono (N2), Ogi (O3), Dawadawa (D1 and D3) and Wara (W3) were identified using molecular technique and used to produce bacteriocin. The bacteriocin activity was assayed against some test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) using agar well diffusion method and the bacteriocin genes were identified using BAGEL3. The LAB identified were Lactobacillus fermentum O3, Leuconostoc mesenteroides N2, Weissella cibaria D1 and 2 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum D3 and W3. The entire identified LAB was able to produce bacteriocin. The antimicrobial activity showed varied inhibitory effects of the bacteriocins on the test bacteria. Bacteriocin from isolate O3 showed the highest inhibition zone 16mm on S. aureus. The identified gene for these bacteriocins were plnJK gene for Lactobacillus plantarum str WCFS1 and strain LZ95 (W3 and D3), entA gene for Lactobacillus fermentum str 3872 (O3) and ppnC7 gene for Leuconostoc mesenteroides str SRA3 (N2) with the interaction of other peptides were responsible for bacteriocin production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Aqueous Colocasia esculenta Extracts on Selected Biochemical Parameters in Phenyl Hydrazine Induced Male Anemic Albino Rats

Adekunle Abiodun Ayoade, Adedayo Emmanuel Ogunware, Ifeoluwa Israel Odekunle, Pelumi Abimbola Adedigba

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i430091

Aims: In this study, the effect of Colocasia esculenta a hematinic plant on biochemical parameters levels (Direct, Total and unconjugated bilirubin, creatinine, total protein, serum albumin and urea) was assessed to determine if the plant extract can reverse the abnormality in the values of these parameter.

Methodology: The experimental animals were divided into four groups as follows; group 1(non-anemic control), group 2 (anemic untreated), group 3 (anemic treated with low dose of plant extract 100 mg/ml), group 4 (anemic treated with high dose of plant extract 500 mg/ml). Anemia was induced in group 1, group 2 and group 3 with 60 mg/kg of phenyl hydrazine for 2 days. After induction of anemia group 2 and group 3 was treated with 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of plant extract for 7 days. After 7-day blood sample was collected through heart puncture and centrifuged for serum. Then, Bilirubin, creatinine, total protein, serum albumin and urea test were carried out.

Results: The anemic untreated group had the highest bilirubin, creatinine and urea value of 1.3 mg/dl, 3.97 mg/dl and 71.78 g/l respectively compared to the non-anemic control (bilirubin-0.4 mg/dl, creatinine-3.13 mg/dl and urea 60.35 mg/dl), anemic treated with low dose (bilirubin-0.37 mg/dl,creatinine-1.40 mg/dl and urea-41.82), and anemic treated with high dose (bilirubin-0.25 mg/dl, creatinine-0.86 mg/dl, and urea-48.66 mg/dl) with significant increase in phenyl hydrazine value at p<0.05 .The anemic nontreated group experienced a reduced value of total protein and albumin of 49.78 g/l and 24.46 g/l respectively compared to the non-anemic control (total protein-66.2 g/l and albumin-37.67 g/l) ,anemic treated with low dose (total protein-67.5 g/l and albumin-19.2 g/l), and anemic treated with high dose (total protein-21.9 g/l and albumin-81.6 g/l).

Conclusion: The obtained results from this study revealed the anti-anemia potentials of aqueous extracts of Colocasia esculenta.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Bacteriological and Biochemical Assessment of Water Samples from Unprotected Wells in Lagos State Metropolis

Adedayo Emmanuel Ogunware, Pelumi Abimbola Adedigba, Yetunde Ebunlomo Oyende, Adesewa Adeyinka Adekoya, Abosede Racheal Daramola

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i430092

Aims: This study presents the results of the physicochemical parameter data and water quality index use to assess the quality of unprotected well water in Lagos southwest, Nigeria.

Methodology: 20 water samples were collected from selected locations namely; PPL, Okokomaiko, Cassidy, Iba express and Iba junction and they were analyzed for 7 physical parameters (temperature of the water, temperature of air, colour, odor, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids) and 7 chemical parameters (pH, iron, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Chloride, organic matter and residual chlorine).

Results: The result showed that 5 (25%) samples had pH below the NSDWQ limit for drinking water quality and 10 (50%) samples had conductivity that were above the standard limit. 15 (75%) samples had Total dissolve solid that were above the standard limit. All other physicochemical parameters were within the NSDWQ. Microbiological analyses were done to assess the total plate count and the coliform count of the water samples and the results showed that 9 samples had colonies that were too numerous to count exceeding the permissible limit of 100 CFU/ml set by WHO. The coliform count of the water samples showed that the MPN per 100 ml of all the water samples were above the WHO limit by having results greater than 1. The IMViC result showed that Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species were found in 6 plates (30%), Citrobacter species were found in 7 plates (35%) and Escherichia species were found in 7 plates (35%).

Conclusions: This result highlight that the well water in these areas are not safe for human consumption without additional treatment such as boiling or addition of disinfectants, therefore there is need to enlighten the consumers around these researched study areas to at least disinfect and filtrate their well water before drinking in order to avoid outbreak of waterborne diseases. Physicochemical

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Histopathological Studies on the Efficacy of Camel Milk and Urine against Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Abdullahi Muhammad Labbo, Sadeeq Muhammad Sheshe, Haris Ja’afar Bello, Zulkallaini Shehu, Zainab Hassan Bello

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i430093

Background: Camel urine has been extensively used for the treatment of diseases including cancer. However, it uses in the management of diabetes complication has not been explored.

Aim: Present study aimed to access the effect of camel milk and urine on biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations of the liver in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: Twenty-five male albino rats were divided into five groups; group 1 served as the Nondiabetic (NDC), group 2 as Diabetic control (DC), group 3, 4 and 5 are animals treated with camel milk (DCM), camel urine (DCU) and metformin (DM) respectively. The treatment was for twenty-one days. The protective role of camel milk and urine was evaluated by determining biochemical parameters and also by studying the histopathological alterations of the liver.

Results: The results indicate a significant increase (P<0.05) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total protein (TP) in DC rats compared to NDC. However, nosignificant difference was observed in the serum level of alkaline phosphate (ALP) between NDC and DC groups (P <0.05). Treatments of diabetic rats with either camel milk, camel urine or metformin significantly (P <0.05) serum activities of AST, ALT and TP. The results of lipid profile show that pretreatment of diabetic rats with camel milk or urine significantly (P<0.05) decreases serum levels of triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to diabetic control group compared to DC group. Moreover, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased remarkably in the groups treated with CM, CU and metformin respectively. Histopathological studies of the liver revealed that all the severe endocrine changes in the endocrine part and localized necrosis present in DC are absent in the Diabetic treated with camel milk (DCM), Diabetic treated with camel urine (DCU) and Diabetic treated with metforming (DM) groups.

Conclusion: Treatment with camel milk or urine has the potential to delay the onset of diabetic complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Egyptian Landraces of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Using Microsatellite Markers

Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar, Mohamed Abd El-Maboud Abd El-Shafi, Mohamed Helmy El-Shal, Ali Hassan Anany

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 46-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v3i430094

To increase the genetic progress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, breeders search for germplasm of high genetic diversity, one of them is the landraces. The present study aimed at evaluating genetic diversity of 20 Egyptian wheat landraces and two cultivars using microsatellite markers (SSRs). Ten SSR markers amplified a total of 27 alleles in the set of 22 wheat accessions, of which 23 alleles (85.2%) were polymorphic. The majority of the markers showed high polymorphism information content (PIC) values (0.67-0.94), indicating the diverse nature of the wheat accessions and/or highly informative SSR markers used in this study. The genotyping data of the SSR markers were used to assess genetic variation in the wheat accessions by dendrogram. The highest genetic distance was found between G21 (Sakha 64; an Egyptian cultivar) and the landrace accession No. 9120 (G11). These two genotypes could be used as parents in a hybridization program followed by selection in the segregating generations, to identify some transgressive segregates of higher grain yield than both parents. The clustering assigned the wheat genotypes into four groups based on SSR markers. The results showed that the studied SSR markers, provided sufficient polymorphism and reproducible fingerprinting profiles for evaluating genetic diversity of wheat landraces. The analyzed wheat landraces showed a good level of genetic diversity at the molecular level. Molecular variation evaluated in this study of wheat landraces can be useful in traditional and molecular breeding programs.