Open Access Minireview Article

Cell Free DNA Analysis for Chromosomal Abnormalities among Pregnant Females of Pakistan

Aliya Irshad Sani, Sajjad Ali, Taha Sohail, Sadia Farrukh

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v4i330105

The advancement of modern molecular biology techniques has made it possible to detect fetal anomalies beforehand in order to tackle the upcoming situation. However, the idea is to devise the most sensitive screening tools with fewer chances of errors as well as noninvasive methods to diagnose fetal abnormalities. Previously used methods amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling possess risks for the fetus on the other hand cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) method is less invasive and reduces the risk to fetus. However, currently most cffDNA screening tests routinely evaluate fetal sex and sex chromosomal aneuploidies while in developed countries analysis of cffDNA is incorporated in high-risk pregnancies to detect the defects and mutations. In Pakistan where the prevalence of birth defect is reported approximately 7% as well as increased consanguineous marriages increase the chance of such defects. Centers in Pakistan offer cffDNA testing but with a hefty cost on the pocket. This review highlights the importance and prospects of exploring the maternal plasma Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening in high risk mothers in Pakistan as well as the limitations and strengths of the technique. Since the cffDNA sequencing is a major advancement in genomic medicine that has reduced the invasive procedures in clinical medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enzymatic Activity of Rhizobacillus Isolated from Tomato Rhizosphere

K. J. Ayantola, E. D. Fagbohun

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v4i330106

Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate Rhizobacillus from tomato rhizosphere and its screening for the production of hydrolytic enzymes to be used as a biocontrol agent.

Place of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria in August 2018.

Methodology: Isolation was of Rhizobacillus carried out from rhizospheric soil of tomato plant at agro-zone along Afao road Ado Ekiti using pour plate method. Enzyme assay was carried out on the bacterial isolates, to examine their ability to produce hydrolytic enzyme required for biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi. Isolates were tentatively identified with the help of Bergy’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology.

Results: Ten strains were tentatively identified as B. brevis, B. circulans BC1, B. macquariensis  BM1, B. macquariensis BM2, B. macerans, B. macquarensis BM3, B. alcalophilus B. macerans  BC11, B. circulans  BC3 and B. macerans BC9. All the Isolates demonstrated the ability to produce hydrolytic enzymes with the highest activity recorded in Bacillus macquariensis BM2 (60.28 µmol) for chitinase, Bacillus macerans BC9 (11.14 µmol) for Protease, Bacillus macquariensis BM2 (150.00 µmol) for Glucanase, and Bacillus circulans BC1 (46.45 µmol) for cellulase respectively. In conclusion the Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere are promising and could be used in bioprocessing technology to produce hydrolytic enzymes for the purpose of biocontrol in management of phytopathogenic fungi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterization of 22 Accessions of Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.]

Kemi Adegboyegun, Fidelis Etuh Okpanachi, Kufre Ededet Akpanikot

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v4i330107

Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L] Millsp.) is a multipurpose legume crop that provides food fodder and wood for small scale farmers. However, it remains one of the underutilised crops with limited research done so far for the crop diversification and improvement. In this study, the phenotypic diversity of 22 accessions of pigeon pea was evaluated. The Seeds were collected from ICRISAT Niamey, Niger. The study was carried out at the biological garden and at the central research laboratory of the University of Lagos. Viability test was done on the collected seeds before planting in a polythene pot. The phenotypic traits measured include both the quantitative and qualitative traits. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among accessions for all quantitative traits, except the seed length, seed breadth, seed thickness and the number of germinated seeds per pot. For qualitative traits, seed colour pattern and primary seed colour were diverse, other qualitative traits measured in this study showed moderate level of variation. The results for cluster analysis for both qualitative and quantitative traits grouped the accessions into two major clusters. In all the dendrograms, accessions ISC 147, ISC 24, ISC 157 and ISC 185 were varied and showed good performance for morphological traits analysed as well. The result of the phenotypic diversity observed in this study can help in parental selection for subsequent plant breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Assay of Methanolic Extract of Caryota No Seed using Drosophila melanogaster Model

Chinonye A. Maduagwuna, Simeon Omale, Monday A. Etuh, Steven S. Gyang

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 43-51
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v4i330110

Objectives: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Caryota no (CN) seeds in Drosophila melanogaster (DM) survival and life span.

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration: African Centre of Excellence for Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Jos Plateau State Nigeria between June 2018 and February 2019.

Methods: The LC50 was determined by exposing 50 flies to concentrations ranging from 1 mg to 600 mg per 10 g diet and mortality of flies was scored every 24 hours for 14 days and from the results, five doses were chosen for the next assay. Survival assays were carried out by exposing 50 flies in each vial to the following concentrations: 300 mg, 350 mg, 400 mg, 500 mg and 600 mg of methanolic extract in 5 replicates for 28 days with daily recording of mortality              while the longevity assay continued from the survival until the last fly dies. All three experiments were done as three independent trials.                                                       

Results: The LC50 values of the methanolic extract was determined to be 6.533e+017 mg/10g food in D. melanogaster.  The result of the survival assay with methanolic extract of CN showed slight significant (P < .05) increase with the lowest two doses but no significant (P > .05) difference with other higher doses compared to the control. The longevity assay revealed that the extract significantly (P < .05) decreased longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.

Conclusion: The results obtained from evaluating the methanolic extract of Caryota no indicate that the plant is relatively non-toxic and maybe safe under acute and subacute exposures but may become deleterious during chronic exposure. 

Open Access Review Article

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha: Role in the Development of Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus

Zulaykho M. Shamansurova, Talat S. Saatov, Lola Sh. Takhirov

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 29-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v4i330108

Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are defined as worldwide pandemics by the World health organization due to their economic burden and widespread. Although a huge amount of research is being done in the field of obesity and DM today, many questions remain unsolved. Tissue inflammation is the main factor in the development of both obesity and DM, leading towards irreversible changes in the tissue and formation of specific complications. One of the widespread cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), was shown to be involved with inflammation in the development of metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Even though the role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of these two diseases remains unclear, new ways of treating and preventing diseases based on TNF-α antagonism attracted the attention of scientists. In this review, TNF-α and its receptors’ structures and properties are explored, and their role in disease development, including obesity and type 2 DM (DM2) will be discussed by viewing data from literature.