Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanol Seed Extract of Garcinia kola on Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)-Induced Liver Toxicity in Albino Rat Models

R. B. Ayuba, M. O. Enemali, J. P. Mairiga, G. S. Haruna, O. N. Ani

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i130116

Aims: To assess the effect of G. kola ethanol seed extract on CCl4-induced liver toxicity in albino rats. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the extract was carried out.

Study Design: Randomized block design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory of Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria between January and August, 2019.

Methodology: Thirty male albino rats were randomly distributed into six groups of five rats each. Group 1, normal control, Group 2, standard control, groups 3–6, test groups all administered for seven days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and liver harvested for histology.

Results: Results of phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids; 1.260±0.00 mg/dl, tannins; 920±0.00 mg/dl, flavonoids; 2.045±0.00 mg/dl, Carbohydrates; 2.00±0.00 mg/dl, Steroids; 0.012±0.00 mg/dl and Cardiac glycosides; 1.25±0.00 mg/dl, saponins, terpenes and anthroquinones were absent. AST in groups 3, 4 and 5 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher when compared to control. ALT was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in all the treatment groups (4, 5, 6) compared to the control groups (1 and 2). ALP activity increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all the test groups compared to the normal control. Total bilirubin increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all the treatment groups compared to the controls. Direct Bilirubin was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the treatment groups (5, 6) compared to the normal control. GSH decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all treatment groups compared to the control. CAT and SOD showed no significant (p > 0.05) difference in the treatment groups when compared to the control groups. Photomicrographs of the liver showed ballooning degeneration with complete loss of nuclear material.

Conclusion: The administered doses in this study did not protect against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Assessment of the Toxicity Effects of Phone Battery Wastes on Aquatic and Terrestrial Bioindicators

Bright Obidinma Uba, Chisom Judith Okonkwo, Odera Richard Umeh

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i130117

Aims: The present study aimed at assessing the toxicity effects of phone battery wastes on aquatic and terrestrial bioindicators.

Study Design: Five treatments and the controls designs designated as 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100%, CTRL and 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 4 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, CTRL were set up in triplicates and incubated for 24 h, 72 h and 20 days at 25 ± 2°C.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Nigeria during May, 2019 - August, 2019.

Methodology: The growth inhibition and mortality were analyzed using Aspergillus terreus toxicity test, Allium cepa toxicity test and Limicolaria flammea toxicity test.

Results: The results revealed that marine water (7.12 logCFU/mL) was shown to had more fungal count than the fresh water (7.07 logCFU/mL) ecosystem. On A. terreus, Itel in fresh water sample had the highest LC50 values of 30.49% while Gionee in fresh water sample had the lowest LC50 values of 21.74% after 24 h, respectively. The Itel battery sample had higher EC50 value (86.08%) than Gionee battery sample with EC50 value of 65.46% after 72 h on A. cepa. On L. flammea, Itel phone battery sample had lower (5.11%) LC50 value than Gionee phone battery sample with higher (6.20%) LC50 value at 6 mg/kg concentration after 20 days’ exposure, respectively.

Conclusion: The results indicate that indiscriminate release of E- wastes into the aquatic and terrestrial environments should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects Attending the General Outpatient Department of the Federal Medical Centre Katsina State, North West Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, A. J. Alhassan, M. K. Atiku, M. A. Wudil, K. I. Matazu, A. Nasir, Z. A. Suleiman, F. Usman, L. Shuaibu, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, Y. K. Bello, M. Alkali, S. Sule, A. A. Yaradua

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 28-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i130118

Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a term that describe the presence of conditions that increase an individual risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke, and its occurrence is in the rise in residents of North-Western Nigeria, The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in respondents from Katsina senatorial zone attending the Out-patient Department of the Federal Medical Center Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 211 (male 109; female 102) respondents aged 10 to 80 years were recruited for the study. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure of respondents were determined using standard methods; serum lipid profile was determined using enzymatic methods. From the results, 11.8% of the male respondents were under weight, 51.6% were within the normal range, 25.4% of the study male population was found to be overweight and 12.8% were obese. 13.5% of the female respondents were under weight, 51.9% were within the normal range, 22.8% of the study female population was found to be overweight and 13.1% were obese. All serum lipids measurements with the exception of serum LDL-C concentration correlated positively with age. There were no statistically significant differences between the frequencies of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and TRIG between the male and female respondents. The most common form of Dyslipidemia in the male and female respondents is low HDL-C. BMI, SBP, LDL-C, HDLC and TRIG were associated metabolic syndrome with the association being significant for SBP and HDL-C (0.05; 0.03) in the male respondent, in the female respondents BMI, SBP, DBP, LDL-C and TRIG were associated metabolic syndrome with the association being significant for SBP, DBP, and TRIG (0.04; 0.04; 0.04) respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in male (31.75%) than in the female respondents (28.33).The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is common in the population under study with the male respondents having the highest prevalence. A robust and well design intervention program by concerned authorities is desirable to address complications of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome in the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous, Ethanolic and Methanolic Extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf., Leaves

Marcella Tari Joshua, Edna O. Nwachukwu, N. Boisa, Nsirim Nduka

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i130119

Aim: This study focused on the phytochemical screening of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic leaf extracts on the species Morus mesozygia linn.

Study Design: This study was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Plant Anatomy and Physiology Research Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, between July, 2018 and November, 2018.

Methodology: Morus mesozygia linn leaves were collected and washed with distilled water, air dried for seven days and milled into fine powder. Maceration method was use to extract the powdered leaf into a brownish paste using three different solvents; distilled water, ethanol and methanol. The different plant extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins and anthraquinones. Quantitative phytochemical analysis was done using a Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy machine.

Results: Results showed that the powdered Morus mesozygia linn leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins, but not anthraquinones. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts contained high amounts of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins, while the ethanolic extract also contained high amounts of the aforementioned phytochemicals in the same proportion, but had saponins in moderate amounts. The result of the GC-MS analysis showed that the three extracts contained complex compounds in varying amounts.

Conclusion: Phytochemical screening test of Morus mesozygia has revealed the presence of the substances like alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, oils, phenolic compounds, tannins and some complex compounds discovered using GC-MS technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on Serum Lipids and Oxidative Stress Markers of Male Wistar Rats

Ijeoma Ezebuiro, Chibuike Obiandu, Friday Saronee, Adesua C. Obiandu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 47-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i130120

Introduction: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is considered to be an important and effective medicinal plant in folklore remedies where it has been applied as an alternative therapy for the treatment of various ailments.

Aim: The present study aims to determine the effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on lipid profile and some oxidative stress markers of male Wistar rats.

Methodology: A total of 15 male wistar rats were procured for the study and randomly assigned into three groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 served as control and received distilled water only. Group 2 received 200 mg/kg and group 3 received 400mg/kg of the hydromethanolic (1:4) extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius which was administered as single daily dose using oral cannula. On completion of treatment, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for determination of some serum lipid parameters and oxidative stress markers.

Results: Results showed that there were no significant difference in the serum level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol at both doses of the extract, compared to control. However, compared to control, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase but significant reduction in malondialdehyde level. The catalase enzyme activity was not significant.

Conclusion: The result obtained suggest that the extract may be useful in reducing oxidative stress by improving some antioxidant enzyme activities and may also prevent cell death due to lipid peroxidation.