Open Access Opinion Article

Aspects of Nucleic Acid Structure and Function

Sosale Chandrasekhar

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i330134

Despite decades of intense study, certain physico-chemical aspects of the nucleic acids–the genetic repository of life–remain enigmatic. Thus, solutions of DNA are apparently constituted of varying amounts of double and single-stranded forms, with melting studies being inconclusive about the effect of temperature on the composition. Consequently, this casts doubt on current estimates of the thermodynamic stability of the base pairs. However, the overwhelming stability of the Watson-Crick model is adumbrated by a kinetic analysis of the action of DNA polymerase, microscopic reversibility indicating that polymerase action is kinetically controlled, whereas proof reading-excision is thermodynamically controlled.

The structural basis for the differing roles played by DNA and RNA in the sustenance and propagation of life also remains to be clarified. It appears that formation of the RNA double helix is sterically inhibited by the 2’ ribose hydroxyl group, which is also relatively inaccessible to external base, thus enhancing hydrolytic stability. The in vivo conformation of RNA is likely determined by the requirements of its appointed biological role, the large size of tRNAs being particularly significant in possibly leading to enhanced specificity in its interaction with the corresponding tRNA synthetase. The proclivity of RNA generally to remain single stranded may indeed be the reason for the existence of viruses as stable RNA-protein complexes.

The preeminent role of nucleic acids as “genetic guardians” is, however, blurred by the fact that the translation of the genetic code is contingent on the action of the various tRNA synthetases. This implies that the genetic code is manifested via codon-anticodon specificity only by the involvement of protein molecules that are unique to each codon-anticodon pair. This has intriguing implications for the origin and evolution of the genetic code, possibly indicating that the tRNA synthetases are a relic of prebiotic protein-nucleic acid hybrids (thus also raising doubts about the RNA world hypothesis).

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Bacteria of Post-Thawing Boer Buck Semen with Addition of Sweet Orange Essential Oil to Tris Yolk Extender

Sukma Aditya Sitepu, Zaituni Udin, . Jaswandi, . Hendri

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i330129

Aims: To determine the effect of the addition of sweet orange essential oil to the extender (tris yolk extender without the addition of antibiotics/antibacterial) to total bacteria Boer Buck frozen semen.

Study Design: Randomized Block Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Laboratory Reproduction of Loka Penelitian Kambing Potong Sei Putih Indonesia, between January and March 2019.

Methodology: The research procedure starts with the preparation of semen extender, collection of fresh semen, dilution of semen, equilibration, freezing of semen, and thawing. This research obtained conducted using a Randomized Block Design consisting of 5 treatment levels and five replications. Semen storage using 3 Boer buck, which done for three days. As a treatment is the addition of sweet orange essential oil as much as (P0) 0%, (P1) 0,25%, (P2) 0,5%, (P3) 0,75% and (P4) 1% on the tris yolk extender. The observed variables was total bacteria evaluated before freezing and after freezing (Post-Thawing).

Results: The results showed that the addition of sweet orange essential oil had a very significant effect (P <0.01). The results of adding sweet orange essential oil to the extender (Post-Thawing) were 78.6 x 102 CFU (P0), 76 x 102 CFU (P1), 73,2 x 102 CFU (P2), 71 x 102 CFU (P3) and 68.6 x 102 CFU (P4).

Conclusion: The best values the total bacteria 68.6 x 102 CFU (P4). It can conclude that the best result of adding sweet orange essential oil to tris yolk extender is (P4) 1%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protein Isolates from Fermented Melon Seeds Promoted Differential Expression in Liver and Pancreas of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

A. O. Iyoriobhe, A. O. Abiola, P. A. Adedigba, P. H. Fagbenro, T. A. Adebisi, F. A. Idowu, A. S. Ogunbowale, O. A. Abisogun, S. A. Adeniyi, O. B. Adu, B. O. Elemo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 6-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i330130

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disorder of human. However, the anti-diabetic activity of protein isolates from fermented plants seed for DM remains enigmatic. The prevalence of diabetes in Africa is exponentially increasing with more deaths occurring directly from diabetes mellitus or from its associated complications. The current study investigated the effect of Protein isolate from fermented melon seeds (Ogiri; OPI) of Cucumeropsis manni on blood glucose, hepatic and pancreatic protein profile, histopathological parameters, identification and characterisation of expressed proteins in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty Male wistar rats were divided into nondiabetic control, STZ-diabetic control, STZ-Ogiri protein isolate supplemented group (STZ-OPI; 200 mg/kg diet), STZ-Ogiri protein isolate supplemented group (STZ-OPI; 600 g/kg diet) and STZ-glibenclamide treated group (STZ-GBN; 0.5 mg/kg diet). Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg BW) freshly dissolved in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer (pH 4.5) into the intraperitonium. Diabetes was confirmed by measuring the fasting blood glucose concentration 48-h post-injection. The rats with blood glucose level above 290 mg/dL were considered to be diabetic. Ogiri protein isolates was supplemented in the diet for 6 weeks. The supplementation OPI reduced (P< 0.05) the blood glucose concentration of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. OPI supplemented groups had significantly higher percentage body weight gain. The high dose OPI supplemented group had a lowest liver protein concentration (19.39 mg/dl) but a significantly (P< 0.05) higher pancreas protein concentration when compared to all the diabetic control. Histological sections of examined tissue revealed accumulation of fat in the liver of diabetic rats and necrosis of the islet of Langerhans were observed in the pancreas. 1DE SDS-PAGE of hepatic and pancreatic tissue homogenates revealed differential expression of 150 kDa proteins in rats treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of OPI only and 20-25 kDa proteins in rats treated with 600 mg/kg body weight of OPI respectively. This result show that OPI supplementation may impose a direct or indirect inhibitory or post translational modification on specific proteins implicated in hyperglycemia and diabetes and as such be a potential antihyperglycemic agent in the management of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative of Different Drying Methods on the Phytochemical and Some Nutrient Components of Scent Leaf (Ocimum gratissimum)

N. B. Muhammad, S. Salihu, A. I. Umar

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i330131

The effect of air, sun, and oven drying methods on scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) and the organic and dietary elemental composition of its leaves was evaluated using standard analytical procedures. Drying increased significantly and the concentration of organic constituents evaluated. The ash content was markedly enhanced by drying and it range from 2% in the fresh sample to 11.5% in the oven-dried sample, the fiber content range from 1.5% in the fresh sample to 5.5% in the air-dried sample, also the lipid content from 0.5% in fresh sample to 2.5% in both air-dried and oven-dried sample, the moisture content was markedly low in the drying method compared to the fresh, the carbohydrate content range from 9.46% in the fresh sample to 76.20% in the sun-dried sample, the protein content ranging from 1.54% in the fresh sample to 2.80% in the sun-dried sample. Preserving Ocimum gratissimum leaves in a more hygienic way and ensure its all-year round availability and possible elimination of most nutrient deficiencies. A significant increase in mineral content was observed upon drying except for K and Ca whose concentration was found to be high (2050±0.003 mg/kg and 1.50±0.003 mg/kg) in the fresh sample and observed low in the dried samples. All the results are expressed in MEAN±SEM (Standard Error of Mean) and a significant difference was observed among the drying methods. The result of this study suggest that drying methods increase the concentration of organic and dietary elemental compositions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (AIP = log TG/HDL-c)

Djite Moustapha, Barry Nene Kesso Oumou, Kandji Pape Matar, Sagne René Ngor, Ndour El Hadji Malick, Gueye-Tall Fatou, Thioune Ndeye Marieme, T. Sagna-Bassene Helene Ange, Coly-Gueye Najah Fatou, Doupa Dominique, Ndiaye-Diallo Rokhaya, Ndour-Mbaye Maimouna, Cisse Aynina, Diop Pape Amadou, Lopez-Sall Philomène, Gueye Papa Madieye

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i330132

Aims: The objective of our study was to evaluate the lipid profile and the plasma atherogenicity index obtained from the log (TG / HDL-c) in diabetics patients.

Study Design: This is a comparative and analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: MARC SANKALE Centre at the Abass Ndao Hospital in Dakar (Senegal), CHNU/Fann Biochemistry Laboratory, from June 2018 to November 2019.

Controls: For each patient, a witness of the same sex and the same age ± 2 years was recruited.

Methodology: The lipid balance parameters were assayed using enzymatic techniques with the Cobas c311 system (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland). Plasma atherogenicity indices for each patient were calculated (CT / HDL-c, LDL / HDL-c and Log (TG / HDL-c)).

Data analysis was performed using XLSTAT software and a p value <0.05 was considered to be a statistically significant difference.

Results: Our study concerned 100 subjects with type 2 diabetes. The average age was 50.5 ± 10.80 years old and the sex ratio was 0.58. Evaluation of lipid parameters had shown an increase in diabetic subjects compared to controls for total cholesterol (2.30 g / l) and LDL-cholesterol (1.40 g / l) with significant differences (p < 0.001). We also found that 11% of patients had a CT / HDL-c ratio > 4.5, while 8% had an LDL-c / HDL-c ratio > 3.5 and 26% of patients had a log (Tg / HDL- c) > 0.21.

Conclusion: Lipid disturbances constitute significant abnormalities in type 2 diabetic subjects and would predispose them to cardiovascular complications. However, IAP = log (TG / HDL-c) could be considered the most sensitive predictor of cardiovascular risk.