Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Wistar Rats to Low Doses of Bisphenol A

Almoeiz Y. Hammad, Shama I. Y. Adam, Warda S. Abdelgadir

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i430135

Bisphenol A is an industrial chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonates (PCs), epoxy resins, and other polymeric materials. In this study the toxicity of different doses of oral bisphenol A to wistar rats was investigated. bisphenol A was given to rats at 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg/kg body weight /day for 12 weeks. All the treated rats had a significantly increased body weight, but none of the rats died during the 6 and 12 weeks’ period. Haematological and biochemical parameters were measured after six and twelve weeks of the experimental period. Behavioral changes and dosing resistance were observed in all the tested groups. After 12 weeks, different types of anemia (microcytic hypochromic, microcytic normochromic and normocytic normochromic) were observed in the different treated groups. The toxicity on the liver, toxicity on kidney and spleen was correlated with changes in the concentrations of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and the concentrations of globulins, glucose, cholesterol and urea. The toxic effect of bisphenol A was evident on the Haematological and Serobiochemical parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Ovarian Integrity, Reproductive Hormones, and Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats Exposed to Tartrazine Azo Dye

Ibioku Elekima, Okorite L. Horsfall, Ifeanyi G. Adimefe, Sandra I. Ayaugbokor, Helen A. Waribo, Edna O. Nwachuku Nwachuku

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i430136

Aim: To assess the effect of tartrazine at ADI doses on ovarian integrity (the weight and histology of the ovary), reproductive fertility hormones (luteinizing hormones (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL)) and oxidative stress markers (glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) over a period of 30 and 60 days in albino rats.

Study Design: A total of 63 female rats weighing approximately 0.2kg were divided into two phases. In phase 1 (30 days treatment period), the rats were divided into 2 groups - designated tartrazine treated group (TTG1) consisting of 20 rats and control untreated group (CUG1) consisting of 15 rats. In phase 2 (60 days treatment period), the rats were again divided into 2 groups – tartrazine treated group (TTG2) consisting of 16 rats and control untreated group (CUG2) consisting of 12 rats. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 7.5mg/kg of the dye was administered orally while the control groups were given food and water only.

Methodology: At the end of the study, the animals were anaesthetized and 5 mL of whole blood samples was collected by means of cardiac puncture into plain bottles, later spun at 4000 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain serum. The laboratory analysis of LH, FSH and PRL as well as GPX and SOD activity were based on Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Technique using rat-specific kits. Ovarian tissues collected were weighed using electronic balance, washed in normal saline, fixed in 10% formalin saline, embedded in paraffin wax, 5μm thick sections were obtained by rotary microtome,  stained using Haematoxylin & Eosin and examined using digital Olympus microscopic.

Results: Non-significant higher values in the absolute weight of the ovary (WOV), FSH, LH, and PRL while non-significant lower values in GPX and SOD were observed in the treated rats against control rats over a period of 30 and 60 days at P=.05. The histological examination over a period of 30 days did not indicate any alteration but hydropic dilation and structural alterations were seen after 60 days.

Conclusion: The administration of ADI doses of tartrazine over a period of 60 days affected the integrity of the ovary mildly as observed in the histology but did not markly reflect on the biochemical markers in the plasma as well as the weight of the ovary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in Haematological Parameters in Plasmodium falciparum Infected Malaria Patients in an Urban Slum of Lagos, Nigeria

U. O. Ozojiofor, O. O. Bankole, N. Anene, A. U. Hassan, S. A. Emaleku

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i430137

The present study was carried to determine the changes in haematological parameters in P. falciparum infected patients in Ajeromi Ifelodun area of Lagos, Nigeria. Seventy (70) human subjects comprising of 50 P. falciparum malarial infected and 20 non-infected (control) subjects between 10-60 years were selected for this study. RDT test and microscopy were carried out to ascertain the presence of P. falciparum. They were grouped based on age criteria and level of parasitaemia. This work was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Nigeria Institute for Medical Research Laboratory, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria between August 2016 and January 2017. Blood samples were collected for the determination of P. falciparum, level of parasitaemia and haematological parameters. Haematological parameters were determined using a Coulter A-T Pierce haematology analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Inc. Fullerton, CA, USA), P. falciparum was determined by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and Microscopy. There was a significant increase in the mean level of total white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells distribution width (RDW), and a significant decrease in the mean level of haematocrit (HCT), haemoglobin (HGB), red blood cells (RBC), and platelets (PLT) in the malaria infected patients than in the controls (p<0.05). There was also a higher malaria parasite density among malaria infected patients for ages above 20 and a lower malaria parasite density for ages below 20 in this study. The findings of this study show that infection with P. falciparum produces changes in haematological parameters in those infected and tested positive for malaria. The most commonly affected parameters are haemoglobin, haematocrit, white blood cells and platelet count.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Alternaria sect. Ulocladioides/Ulocladium Isolated from Citrus Fruits in Upper Egypt

Youssuf A. Gherbawy, Thanaa A. Maghraby, Karima E. Abdel Fattah, Mohamed A. Hussein

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 30-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i430138

Citrus is the most important crop in Upper Egypt. 150 infected samples were collected from citrus samples (Navel orange, Tangerine and Lemon) in Upper Egypt, 50 samples from each fruit. Twenty-two isolates representing three species of Alternaria belong to A. sect. Ulocladioides and A. sect. Ulocladium were isolated on dichloran chloramphenicol- peptone agar (DCPA) medium at 27°C. Tangerine samples were more contaminated with Alternaria followed by Navel orange and no Alternaria species appeared from Lemon samples. Based on the Alt a1 the phylogenetic analysis identified the isolates as Alternaria atra, Alternaria botrytis and Alternaria oudemansii. The pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by inoculation of healthy navel orange, the resulted data showed that all tested isolates were pathogenic to healthy navel orange with different degrees ranged from 31.5±1 - 20±1 mm and A. oudemansii had a low virulent effect. The mycotoxins ability of tested isolates indicated that about 83% of the isolates were TeA toxin producers with amount ranged from 1.54 - 18.47 ug/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Identification of Aflatoxigenic Fungi in Some Foods from Selected Markets in Lagos

Oluwatosin Bidemi Ajiboye, Wahab Oluwanisola Okunowo, Emmanuel Gboyega Ajiboye, Abiola Olajumoke Oyedeji

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 42-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v5i430139

Aflatoxigenic fungi are species of fungi that produce aflatoxins in food commodities. This study was aimed at screening different food samples in our local market for aflatoxigenic fungi using the aflatoxin regulatory gene (aflR gene). Six food samples (wheat, cowpea, rice, maize, melon and groundnut), were sourced from three different markets in Lagos metropolis (Mushin, Oyingbo and Mile 12). Fungi were isolated from these food samples and identified morphologically and microscopically. The genomic DNA was obtained using DNA isolation kits. The aflR gene was amplified from genomic DNA, nested, subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis and gel imaging. The Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) was also amplified from the genomic DNA for molecular identification of the organisms. The results showed that Aspergillus flavus were isolated from all the food samples from the three markets, while Aspergillus niger was present in rice, melon and wheat from Mile 12 market, maize and groundnut from Mushin market, rice and cowpea from Oyingbo market. A. flavus and A.niger were isolated from all the food samples when similar food samples from different market were mixed together. Only A. flavus amplicon from the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed approximately 400bp DNA fragment on the gel. This study has shown that PCR amplification of aflR gene has high specificity for detection of aflatoxigenic fungi in food samples thus, may be employed in screening food samples for contamination by aflatoxigenic fungi.