Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Quinolone Resistance Genes in Staphylococcus aureus from Patients Attending Federal Medical Centre Keffi, Nigeria

E. A. Sunday, Y. B. Ngwai, R. H. Abimiku, I. H. Nkene, Y. Ibrahim, E. Y. Envuladu, S. K. Kigbu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v6i330151

Aims: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile and quinolone resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus from patients attending Federal Medical Centre, Keffi, Nigeria.

Methodology: A total of 240 clinical samples which comprised of high vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, sputum, ear swabs, wound swabs, semen and eye swabs, were collected from the patients. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from these samples using standard microbiological method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed and interpreted in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method. Ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus were screened for quinolone resistance genes using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method.

Results: Out of 240 clinical samples, the prevalence of S. aureus was 21.3%. The prevalence in relation to clinical samples was higher in eye swab (45.5%) and ear swab (44.4%), but lower in sputum (14.5%). The isolates were more resistant to oxacillin (88.2%), sulphamethoxazole/ trimethoprim (82.4%) and erythromycin (76.5%), but less resistant to ciprofloxacin (19.6%) and levofloxacin (5.9%). The most common resistance phenotypes in the isolates were sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) - clindamycin (DA) – ofloxacin (OX) - erythromycin (E) - rifampicin (RD) and SXT-DA-OX-E- streptomycin (S) -RD with an occurrence of (13.7%) each. The percentage occurrences of multidrug resistant and extensive-drug resistant isolates were 92.2% and 7.8% respectively. The occurrences of quinolone resistance genes in the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were: aac(6′)-Ib-cr (60.0%), gyrA and gyrB (50.0%), parC (40.0%), qnrB (20.0%) and qnrS (10.0%).

Conclusion: The isolates were less resistant to levofloxacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin in the study location. Most of the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored quinolone resistance genes with aac(6′)-Ib-cr as the most common.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Anti-Nutrients and Elemental Constituents of C. esculenta

Oguazu E. Chinenye, Achilike I. Chidiebere, Ani O. Nnenna

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v6i330153

Cocoyam (C. esculenta) is an aroid that is grown most importantly for edible corms. C. esculenta is used by the locals, it has been noted that when used as feed, it causes swelling of the lips, mouth and throat. The aim of this work was to investigate the proximate, anti-nutrients and elemental constituents of C. esculenta. Proximate, elemental and anti-nutrient constituents of C. esculenta were investigated. For the mineral composition Atomic absorption spectrometer was used, while a standard method of analysis by American Organization of Analytical Chemistry was adopted for the proximate analysis and anti-nutrient composition. After the experiment, the data obtained were presented as mean± SD and were subjected to statistical analysis using student T-test, to determine the level of significance at p≤0.05. The results showed that for the two samples, the flour processed with the bark has highest concentrations of carbohydrate and minerals, but the bark has a higher concentration of anti-nutrients which causes swollen lips, scratchiness of throat and astringent taste.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Haemoglobin Levels and Platelet Counts of Malaria Infected and Non-Infected Children in Offinso, Ghana

Ellis Kobina Paintsil, Charity Wiafe Akenten, Linda Aurelia Ofori

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v6i330154

Malaria is known to have significant effects on the body. This study, investigated the relation between platelet and haemoglobin levels of malaria positive and negative children (age range = 1-14 years).  Out of the 1049 children (4.1± 3.3 years), comprising 493 females and 556 males who were tested for malaria parasites, the prevalence of malaria was 35.3%. Children aged one year with malaria recorded the least hemoglobin concentration of 8.0 ± 2.4g/dL. As the age of the children with malaria infection increase, the haemoglobin concentration also increased. The prevalence of anemia (<10 g/dL) in malaria infected children was 55.4% compared to 28.0% in children without malaria. Children with malaria infection were up to 4.0 (OR) times more likely to have severe anemia (<7 g/dL) than those uninfected. Furthermore, only 5.6% of malaria negative patients had thrombocytopenia (platelet <150 ); while 49.5% of malaria positive children had thrombocytopenia. There was a significant weak positive correlation (rho=0.277) between haemoglobin and platelet count of malaria positive children, but a weaker negative correlation (r = -0.088) in those without malaria. The haemoglobin levels and platelet counts of children without malaria followed the normal distribution, while those with malaria did not. Therefore, haemoglobin and platelet data from malaria negative and positive children should be analysed differently to improve diagnosis and treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Optimization of Biosurfactants from Citrullus lanatus Seeds and Activity Determination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolate

T. O. Ukwueze, V. E. O. Ozougwu, O. U. Njoku, G. S. Haruna

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v6i330155

Aims: To produce and optimize biosurfactants from Citrullus lanatus seeds.

Study Design: Randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Lab. and Department of Microbiology lab. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, between April and August, 2017.

Methodology: Biosurfactants were produced in two fermentation media consisting of basal mineral medium+ watermelon (C. lanatus) seed (BMM+WMS), and Nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of production process was carried out with respect to time/duration of fermentation and pH of production which indicated 7 days fermentation period at pH 8.0. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa used was isolated from soil. The biosurfactants stability under some environmental conditions were studied using; Thermostability test at 30°C, 60°C, and 100°C; Halostability test with %w/v concentration of NaCl in; 2%NaCl, 5%NaCl, 7%NaCl, and 10%NaCl; pH stability test was conducted with pH 2.0, pH 4.0, pH 6.0, pH 8.0, pH 10.0, and pH 12.0.

Results: Proximate analysis(%) showed; protein (0.317­ ± 0.02), lipid (17.66 ± 0.17), carbohydrate (62.77 ± 0.21), ash (2.33 ± 0.24), fibre (4.84 ± 0.79), and moisture (12.06 ± 0.17).The Emulsification index (E24) for the crude biosurfactant solutions (supernatants) that resulted from the two production media, and sodium dodecyl sulfate 1% SDS in distilled water (control) using palm oil (PO), olive oil (OO), engine oil (EO), kerosene (KR), and petrol (PT) for BMM+WMS biosurfactant gave  PO (79.66±1.52%), OO (64.66±7.23%), EO (15.33±4.93%), KR (12.66±6.50%), and PT (0.00±0.00%). Also, the NB biosurfactant resulted in; PO (71.00±2.00), OO (54.33±3.78), EO (42.66±6.42), KR (22.66±7.57), and PT (0.00 ± 0.00) E24 values. There were significant decreases (p<0.05) in biosurfactants activities in all vegetable oils and hydrocarbons when compared to the SDS surfactant. However, there was no significant decrease (p>0.05) in WMS biosurfactant activity in palm oil compared to SDS surfactant activity in palm oil.

Conclusion: The biosurfactants were shown to have high thermostablity as their E24 values increased with rise in temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanolic Extract of African Ebony (Diospyros mespiliformis) Stem Bark on Liver and Kidney Function Biomarkers in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

N. B. Muhammad, R. S. U. Wasagu, B. Sani

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 51-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2020/v6i330156

The effect of methanolic extract of African Ebony (Diospyros mespiliformis) on glucose level,   liver and kidney function biomarkers in alloxan induced diabetic rat was investigated. The rats were grouped into four of ten (10) rats each. The rats in Group B, C and D were induced with 0.4mL of alloxan. Group C was treated with 0.3 mL of methanol stem back of Diospyros mespiliformis, Group D was treated with 1.3 mL of metformin; Group A non-diabetic and Group B diabetic untreated. There was a significance increase (P<0.05) in serum glucose level (23.95±1.04mmol/L) of diabetic untreated rat when compared with the normal rat (5.59±0.22mmol/L) Group A. There was also a significant difference P<0.05 in glucose level of the Groups treated with extract (15.90±0.29mmol/L)  and Group treated with metformin (17.25±0.28mmol/L)  when compared with diabetic untreated rat (23.95±1.04mmol/L). The effect of extract on Liver marker enzymes AST shows a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the Group treated with extract (11.00±0.40U/L) and metformin (11.04±1.08U/L) when compared with untreated (12.88±0.53g/L). ALT showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in the Groups treated with extract (11.05±1.07U/L) and metformin (11.02±1.11U/L) when compared with untreated Group (14.58±0.76g/L). There was a significance P<0.05 increase of Total protein in untreated rats (66.00±2.26g/L) when compared with extract (11.25±1.15g/L) and treated with metformin (11.75±1.11g/L). There was a significance P<0.05 decrease in ALB in diabetic untreated (41.25±0.25g/L) when compared with that treated with extract (57.25±4.37g/L) and metformin (60.20±1.88g/L) and untreated rats. The values of renal function, Urea (6.74±1.76) mMol/l for Group A, (6.50±1.56) mMol/l for Group B, (8.87±1.10)mMol/l for Group C and (8.44±1.21) mMol/l for Group D. Creatinine values (0.44±0.01) mMol/l for Group A, (4.02±0.36) mMol/l for Group B, (3.16±0.10) mMol/l for Group C and (0.46±0.10) mMol/l. The stem bark extracts possesses hypoglycemic effect and also has a positive effect on liver and kidney function biomarker.