Open Access Minireview Article

Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, in Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Acute Toxicity of Ethanol Extract of Morinda lucida Leaves

F. M. Idih, O. V. Alagbe, V. D. Sheneni, J. Ebune

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i230171

Plants are known to contain phytochemicals of pharmacological relevance and as such have been utilized in the treatment and management of various diseases. Morinda lucida, a medium size tropical tree belonging to the rubiaceae family and widely distributed in Africa is one of these plants. It has been reportedly used in the traditional treatment and management of diseases. This study is aimed at identifying compounds with pharmacological relevance in the ethanol extract of Morinda lucida leaves, the antioxidant activity and lethal dose determination of the extract. The leaves of Morinda lucida was extracted with ethanol; phytochemical and bioactive compounds analysis, in vitro antioxidant activity and lethal dose (LD50) determinations were carried out. It was observed in the study that the extract contains alkaloids, quinines, quinones, flavonoids and tannins. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified phenol 2, 4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) (2.82%), Stilbenes (12.32%), Phenoxazine (2.60%) and Benz(cd) indol-2(1H)-one, 1-methyl- (2.60%) amongst other compounds in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract revealed that it possesses a significant antioxidant activity which increased with increasing concentration. The LD50 determination revealed the extract was safe as there was no death recorded even at a dose as high as 5000 mg/kg. This study shows that Morinda lucida possesses enormous pharmacological potentials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Glycaemic Indices of Four Nigerian Staple Diets in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Odu Nwamaka Maureen, Attah Izuchukwu ` Solomon, Akor Joseph, Ugwoke Ifeanyi Faith, Okey Nwakaego Edith, Odo Eberechukwu Jessica, Ogbonna Ejike Kenneth, Ezema Onyebuchi Benjamin, Nwanguma Chima Bennett

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i230168

The glycaemic indices (GI) of food paste made from wheat, corn, yam, flours and garri in apparently healthy rats using glucose as standard control and water as normal control were determined through  Laboratory-experimental design. This was achieved based on the effect of these different selected carbohydrate diets on postprandial glycaemia of the animal model which resulted on variable glucose response. The proximate analysis of the processed diet from wheat, corn and yam showed higher fat and protein contents than that of gari diet. Also, yam diet showed the lowest carbohydrate. The fibre content was shown to be higher in gari with the lowest in yam containing diet.  Each of these selected carbohydrate diets contained 56.85% starch. A total of eighteen (18) adult male wistar rats divided into six groups which consisted of three rats each were used in the course of this study. Animals were starved  throughout the night for twelve (12) hours and their blood glucose level tested at time zero, before the test food containing 2 grammes of carbohydrate per kilogramme body weight were cautiously administered. After a time interval of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, the blood glucose was determined. α-amylase digestibility of the yam, corn, and wheat diets were higher than that of garri diet. The glycaemic index of yam diet (73.8%) was the highest, followed by that of corn diet (70.4%), wheat diet (70.2%) and garri (61.5%). The glycaemic indices of all the rat diets were less than that of the glucose standard (100%). Comparatively, the glycaemic indices of yam, wheat and corn diets did not differ significantly (p>0.05), while that of garri was significantly (p<0.05) lower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Hematological Effects of Solanum melongena (Garden Egg), Solannum lycopersicum (Tomato) and Daucus carrots Subsp. Sativus (Carrot) Extracts against Lead Induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

Dennis Amaechi, I. P. Ekpe, E. D. Edet, M. C. Madu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i230169

Background of the Study: Lead effects were assessed by analyzing the impacts of the extract on the liver enzyme concentrations and hematology parameters.

Materials and Methods: Thirty five male wistar rats weighing 85-110 g were distributed into five groups consisting of seven rats each. Group I served as control group, group II served as the test group, groups III, IV and V served as treatment groups. Lead acetate solution was given to the rats orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg of fruit extracts for 14 days. On day 15, biochemical analysis were carried out.

Results: Effects of extracts showed that ALT,AST and ALP concentration in group II was observed to be significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control and treatment groups with values. The hematology results showed that lead did not cause a significant reduction in the packed cell volume, white blood cell and red blood cell counts. However, the group treated with carrot and garden egg showed slight increase in RBC and WBC count when compared with the positive and negative control groups.

Conclusion: From the results above, it showed that the fruits extract have hematopoietic potentials and hence aid in the hepatoprotection of the liver of lead induced Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytogenotoxicity Assessment of Aqueous Extracts of Rauvolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on the Male Germ Line Cells of the Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae)

Dongmo Tonleu Ingrid, Seino Richard Akwanjoh, Ngnaniyyi Abdoul, Manjeli Yacouba

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i230170

Cytogenotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) stem bark were assessed on male germ line cells of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Concentrations of 0, 10, 15 and 20 µg/ml of infused and macerated aqueous extracts of R. vomitoria were prepared and administered through injection to the grasshoppers. Grasshoppers were dissected after 72 hours of incubation and the different parameters were then evaluated. Results revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction of the length and the width of testis follicles with increasing concentrations of the two aqueous plant extracts. Meiosis analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in meiotic abnormalities with increasing concentrations of the two aqueous plant extracts. Infused and macerated aqueous extracts of R. vomitoria at different concentrations did not modify the karyotype of Z. variegatus. Cyclophosphamide (CP) induced chromosomes aberrations and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the mean chromosomes complement number which ranged from 2n= 19.00 ± 0.00 (controlled individuals) to 2n= 17.60 ± 1.82 (CP treated individuals). These observations indicate that infused and macerated aqueous extracts of R. vomitoria stem bark could induced cytogenotoxicity on the germ line cells of the grasshopper Z. variegatus. These results also confirm the utilization of CP as positive control in chromosomes aberration assays on grasshoppers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiulcer and Antioxidant Potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves Methanol Extract in Albino Rats

Jude Nwaogu, Aminu Argungu, Adetayo Joseph Adefarakan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 39-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i230172

Aim: This research is aimed at assessing the antiulcer and antioxidant potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves methanol extract in albino rats.

Methodology: Fresh leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were harvested from the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero. The dried pulverized leaves were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with methanol as the solvent. Thirty male albino rats weighing between 200 g and 250 g were used in this study. The rats were randomly divided into six (6) groups of five (5) rats each. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity was evaluated using ethanol-induced ulcer model. Ulcer was induced in all groups except Group 1 which served as the control and received distilled water only. Group 2 was not treated while Group 3 was treated with omeprazole (50mg/kg). Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg of the extract respectively. After seven days of treatment, the albino rats were humanely sacrificed, ulcer index determined and the serum assessed for antioxidants levels.

Results: The gastric mucosal lesions produced in the untreated group were very visible and had an ulcer index of 12.83. Pre-treatment with omeprazole and graded doses of the extract showed significant reductions (P<.05) in ulcer index in a dose dependent manner. The SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH and MDA levels were significantly reduced (P<.05) in the untreated group with progressive reduction in the treated groups as the extract concentration reduced. The antioxidant vitamins (Vitamin A, C and E) reduced in concentration significantly (P<.05) without any significant difference between the untreated group and the groups that received 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the extract. Meanwhile, the group treated with 800mg/kg of the extract significantly increased (P<.05) the concentrations of these vitamins when compared to the group that received ethanol only.

Conclusion: Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves methanol extract possesses both antiulcer and antioxidant activity. This justifies the use of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves in traditional medicine in the management of ulcer and validates its antiulcer potential.