Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemicals, Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Compositions of Fresh, Sprouted and Toasted Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) Seed Extracts

Titilayo O. Bamidele, Haruna G. Sunday, Auta Mathew, Jesse Ombugadu, Abdullahi Maryam

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i330174

The current study evaluated the Phytochemicals Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Compositions of Fresh, Sprouted and Toasted Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) Seed extracts. The phytochemicals, proximate, amino acids, microminerals and antinutrients compositions were determined following standard laboratory procedures in autoanalizer machines. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by LSD and Duncan test for levels of significance. Results revealed the presence of Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Cardiac glycosides, Terpenoids in the three samples but anthroquinones was absent in sprouted and toasted watermelon seeds. Saponins (2.15 ± 0.07 mg/100 g), Tannins (40.63 ± 0.13 mg/100 g) Cyanogenic glycosides (3.55 ± 0.35 mg/100 g). There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the concentrations of the phytochemicals in all the samples except for cyanogenic glycosides which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fresh sample. Percentage protein (24.87 ± 0.48) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the sprouted sample, ash (%) (2.63 ± 0.11) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the sprouted, fibre (20.64 ± 0.23) and moisture (%) (2.88 ± 0.19) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the toasted and carbohydrates (%) (9.81 ± 1.27) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the sprouted. Results obtained for Amino acids and mineral analyses showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the three samples and Phytates (0.31 ± 0.01%) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the fresh sample while oxalates (0.85 ± 0.01%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the sprouted sample. The fresh, sprouted and toasted watermelon seeds may possess nutritional and health benefit by the virtue of their richness in phytochmicals, microminerals and amino acids, however the safety of the fresh sample is not guaranteed due to its high concentration of anti-nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis, Characterization and In-vitro Antioxidant Property of Silver Nanoparticles Using the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Justicia carnea

I. O. Salaudeen, M. O. Olajuwon, A. B. Ajala, T. O. Abdulkareem, S. A. Adeniyi, S. A. Jisu, M. O. Omisore, M. D. Abdulahi, J. D. Abdulazeez, J. O. Igbalaye, G. A. Adeyemo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i330175

This study investigated the synthesis, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous leaf extract of Justicia carnea.  The aqueous leaf extract of J. carnea was used as a potential reducing and capping agent. To identify the compounds responsible for the reduction of silver ions, the functional groups present in the plant extract were subjected to FTIR. The in vitro antioxidant activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2`-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) free radicals scavenging assays. The surface plasmon resonance confirmed the formation of AgNPs with maximum absorbance at kmax = 446 nm. FTIR revealed the biological macromolecules of J. carnea leaf extract involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. UV-Visible spectrophotometer showed absorbance peak in the range of 436-446 nm. The silver nanoparticles exhibited moderate antioxidant activities compared to standard antioxidants (ascorbic acid and BHT). These results confirmed this protocol as simple, eco-friendly, nontoxic and an alternative for conventional physical and chemical methods. It can be concluded that J. carnea leaf extract can be used effectively in the production of potential antioxidant AgNPs which could be useful in various bio-applications such as cosmetics, food and biomedical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic Potential of Dietary Supplementation of Protein Isolate from Fermented Cucumeropsis manii in Streptozotocin Induced Hyperglycemic in Male Wistar Albino Rats

A. O. Abiola, A. O. Iyoribhe, S. A. Adeniyi, O. B. Adu, A. S. Ogunbowale, P. A. Adedigba, D. B. Awojobi, T. M. Johnson, J. O. Oyedola, T. O. Wahab, S. F. Ajose, B. O. Elemo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 31-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i330176

The effect of Protein isolate from fermented melon seeds (Ogiri Protei Isolates; OPI) of Cucumeropsis manii on blood glucose, lipid profile, and antioxidant enzyme activities in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Thirty Male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. GThe first control group with no exposure. The second group of rats with Streptozotocin-induced non-treated diabetes. The 3rd and 4th groups of rats with Streptozotocin-induced diabetes supplemented with Ogiri protein isolates (200, 600 mg/kg in diet). And the 5th group of rats with Streptozotocin-induced diabetes administered glibenclamide in a dose 500 ug/kg in diet [17]. The OPI was administered for 6 weeks. The administration of OPI reduced the blood glucose concentration of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Sera and hepatic superoxide dismutase, activities of the STZ-induced diabetic rats were significantly (P< 0.05) increased in comparison with the diabetic control rats. Lipid peroxidation of the supplemented OPI diabetic rats was significantly (P< 0.05) decreased in comparison with the diabetic control rats as the administration of OPI to the STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly increased the enzymes’ activities. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins in the OPI supplemented rats was significantly elevated. These data demonstrate that OPI supplements might be beneficial for correcting hyperglycemia but the consumption of OPI can modulate some tissue lipids in a direction not beneficial for CVD risk in patients with diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiarrhoeal Studies of Methanol Leaf Extract of Cassia sieberiana Dc in Wistar Albino Rats

Jude Nwaogu, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Esther Omolade Olaosebikan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 43-49
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i330177

Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the antidiarrhoeal effect methanol leaf extract of Cassia sieberiana.

Methodology: The leaf extract of Cassia sieberiana was obtained by extraction using methanol and subjected to phytochemical screening using standard methods. The anti-diarrhoeal effect of methanol leaf extract of Cassia sieberiana DC was investigated in Wistar Albino rats.

Results: The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, phenols, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and anthraquinoes. The methanol extract significantly (P<.05) reduced the number of unformed faeces in castor oil induced diarrhoea in the rats. It also significantly (P<.05) reduced the gastrointestinal transit of activated charcoal as well as enteropooling in the rats used for the experiment was significantly reduced (P<.05) in the groups treated with 500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this research, the methanol leaf extract of Cassia sieberiana possess anti-diarrheal activity and therefore validates its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea.

Open Access Review Article

Garlic (Allium sativum L.): Overview on its Biology and Genetic Markers Available for the Analysis of Its Diversity in West Africa

Timothée Kouassi Agbo So, Rabiou Abdou, Idi Saidou Sani, Abdoul Karim Toudou, Yacoubou Bakasso

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i330173

Garlic belongs to the Allium genus, which includes more than 750 species divided into more than 60 taxonomic groups. It is cultivated in many countries throughout the world for the bulb and used as a spice and functional food. The plant vegetatively propagates. This review will focus on origins, biology, analysis of genetic diversity, pharmacological properties of garlic. It appears from this synthesis that the Allium sativum species is derived from Allium longicuspis and is native to Central Asia. Studies on the analysis of genetic diversity through morphological markers revealed a wide variation in the color, shape and number of cloves and the ability to flower. Biochemical markers such as Esterase (EST), Phosphoglucomutase (PGI), Malate Deshydrogenase (MDH), and Diaphorase (DIA as well as molecular markers such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRS) Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) were successfully used. RFLPs or RAPD are the most used for assessing genetic variability within asexually reproducing garlic species. Work using SSRs markers is limited in garlic relative to other crops.