Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Anti-lipidaemic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Seed Extracts of Datura stramonium on Male Albino Rats

Junaidu Yahaya, Gideon Obaje Sunday, Muazu Muhammed, Abdullahi Attah Alfa, Kokori Bajeh Tijani

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i430178

Aim: This study was carried out to investigate anti-lipidaemic effects of aqueous and ethanolic seed extracts of Datura stramonium.

Methods: A total of twenty five albino rats weighing between 150 – 180 g were used. They were divided into five groups each contained five rats. Group 1, was the normal control and thus received normal saline. Groups 2 and 3 were treated respectively with aqueous extract at doses of 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg while groups 4 and 5 respectively received 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg ethanolic extract. The extracts were administered orally and the animals were sacrificed on the day 8 and the blood samples collected via retro-orbital plexus. The blood was then centrifuged after fifteen minutes and serum obtained for lipid profile analysis. 

Results: The total cholesterol level generally decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in test groups, except in group 2 (0.502 ±.008 mg/dl) which received lower aqueous extract dose of 300 mg/kg. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in triacylglycerol (TG) levels in groups of 2 and 3 (groups treated with aqueous extract) but indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in group 4 (0.15 ± .003 mg/dl) which received high ethanolic extract dose. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels increased significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 4 and 5 with the mean values of 0.164 ± .002 mg/dl and 0.147 ± .004 mg/dl respectively. The mean values of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level generally indicated a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in all test groups, the decrease was more significant in groups 4 and 5 with mean values of 0.065 ± .00 mg/dl and 0.069 ± .00 mg/dl, when compared with groups 2 and 3.

Conclusions: This study proves that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Datura stramonium possess anti-lipidaemic property. The ethanolic extract had higher anti-lipidaemic property than the aqueous extract. Both extracts might be useful in the treatement of some cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Thaumatococcus danielli Leaf Extracts on Immunological and Oxidative Stress Markers in Rat

O. B. Adu, G. A. Adeyemo, O. B. Falua, O. O. Fajana, O. O. Ogunrinola, G. M. Saibu, B. O. Elemo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i430179

This work demonstrated the immunological and antioxidant activities of Thaumatococcus daniellii leaf extracts and their potential as the pharmaceutical factor for the treatment of some pathological disorders such as cancer, leucopenia, cells inflammation, dietary, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disease and other immunological and oxidative stress disorders.36 albino rats of average weight 140 ± 5 g were randomly grouped into 6 with six rats per group. The rats in group A (positive control) received only 0.1% DMSO. The rats in the negative control (group B) received pyrogallol (immunosuppressor) + 0.1% DMSO for 7 days and challenged with 0.1ml Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC). The test groups (C to F) also received pyrogallol + 0.1% DMSO for 7 days and were also challenged with SRBC for a period of 72hours after which they were treated with High and Low doses of either petroleum ether or water extracts of Thaumatococcus danielii for 21days. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out using Carbon Clearance Test. Haematological/ immunological parameters, Spleen and Plasma antioxidant parameters like Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) Activities, Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) and Malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations were also determined. Result unveiled a significant (p<0.05) increase in the phagocytic index of both high doses of water and petroleum ether extracts compared to the negative control group. There were no significant (p<0.05) changes in the Heamatological parameters and plasma catalase, but there was a significant change in the white blood cell (WBC) count and also an improvement in the spleen and plasma antioxidant parameters. Further study is required to understand the mechanism of action of both extracts in order to exploit it in immunomodulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Relationship of Four Strains of Guppy (Poeciliareticulata Peters, 1859) Using RAPD-PCR Method

Ine Triana Nuradha, Ayi Yustiati, Asep Agus Handaka, Ibnu Bangkit

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i430180

This study aims to determine the genetic relationship between four strains of guppy, albino full platinum (AFP), albino german yellow (AGY), top sword (TS) and guppy yellow cobra (GYC) using the RAPD-PCR method. This study used explorative method without experimental design and analyzed by descriptive qualitative and quantitative. The obtained genetic relationship data could be used as data reference for hybridization between strains of guppy fish that have been researched. The research was conducted in October 2020-April 2021. The three fish samples (AFP, TS and GYC) obtained from fish breeder in Cilengkrang-Bandung and AGY sample obtained from fish breeder in Tanggerang-Banten. Based on the results of amplification using OPA-03 primer (AGTCAGCCAC), four strains of guppy fish showed 30 DNA bands that included polymorphic and monomorphic bands. The AFP strains had 19 monomorphic bands, AGY had 21 DNA bands (20 monomorphic bands and one polymorphic bands), TS had 19 DNA bands (17 monomorphic bands and two polymorphic bands) and GYC had 15 DNA bands (14 monomorphic bands and one polymorphic band). Phylogenetic tree analyzed by NTSys program. It is shown between AFP and AGY strains had 95% relationship index, then between TS and GYC strains had 82% relationship index and between AFP-AGY and TS-GYC had 50% relationship index.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemistry and Antioxidant Activity of Irvingiagabonensis (Bush mango) Seed Sample

Ezekwe Ahamefula Sunday, Nwadike Constance Nnedimma, Wokocha Gift Peter, George Boma Orlando

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i430181

Phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of Irvingiagabonensis (Bush mango) seed sample were evaluated. Dried milled seeds of I.gabonensis popularly known as “ogbono” passed through phytochemical screening, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and antioxidant studies. Tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing sugars were among the phytochemicals found present after screening. About 20 constituents were revealed by the GC-MS analysis out of which 1,3-O-Benzylidine glyceryl-2-myristate had the highest molecular weight, 2-Undecanone had the highest peak area of 45.39% whereas 3-Dibenzofuranamine had the highest retention time. Some of these constituents could have one or two applications in medicinal, food or cosmetic industries. I.gabonensis seeds showed better antioxidant activity against the control at concentrations considered in this study. Some of these constituents as well could be behind the observed antioxidant activity. This study has evaluated the phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of I.gabonensis (Bush mango) seed sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Differentiation of Clariid Populations using Microsatellite Markers in Kano State Rivers

I. O. Suleiman, R.O. Okeke, J. M. Madu, A. U. Umar, O.M Akinsola, W. O. Echekwu, D. S. Bunjah Umar

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 35-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v7i430182

This study aimed to investigate the genetic characterization of strains of Clariid fish species in some river bodies in Kano State using microsatellite markers.One hundred and seventy seven Clariid fish samples (Clariasgariepinus and Heterobranchuslongifilis) were collected from six rivers (Thomas, Ghari, Tiga dam, Duddurun Gaya, Karaye and Bagwai) in Kano state. Blood sample was taken from each fish sample by severing the caudal peduncle and drained into FTA cards for DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction and electrophoresis to determine genetic variation between the Clariid fish populations.Genealex 6.4 software package was used to analyse the resolve bands from DNA extraction to determine their base pair and genetic variation. Results showed that the Fst values ranged from 0.00 to 0.66, Fit ranged from -0.04 to 0.12, Fis ranged from -0.35 to -0.26. It indicated a large number of gene flow (exchange) among the populations with a range of 0.46 to 0.87. There was an established magnitude of genetic divergence (91.86%) among the populations as shown by the result of the percentage polymorphism which depends on the number of alleles detected per locus and their frequencies. It can be concluded that since there was no inbreeding as shown in the study, none of the population exhibited genetic uniqueness. The populations had a high genetic differentiation between populations but moderate differentiation within populations. The populations were outbred populations; an indication that relatives avoided mating in the population.