Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Genetic Diversity of Four Guppy Strains Using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR

Riva Hafidah, Ayi Yustiati, Yuniar Mulyani, Ibnu Bangkit Bioshina Suryadi

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i130183

This research aims to determine genetic diversity of four strains guppy, respectively are japan blue double sword (JBD), japan blue tiger double sword (JBTD), blue moscow (BM), and panda guppy (PG) with RAPD-PCR method. The obtained genetic diversity data is used as guide reference for hybridization between four strains. The research was conducted in September 2020 to April 2021 with explorative methods and in qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. The research was carried out in biotechnology Laboratory, Fishery and Marine Sciences Faculty and Central Laboratory,Padjadjaran University, Indonesia.Strains of JBD, JBTD, BM obtained fromCilengkrangSubdistrict, Bandung and PG strain obtained from Parung market, Bogor. Primary OPA-03 (AGTCAGCCAC) is used for standard parameters to interpret genetic diversity among four strains of guppy. Based on results, amplification with OPA-03 primary visualize 25 bands that include five polymorphic bands and 20 monomorphic bands. The phylogenetic tree result show that there are two relationship groups. The first group are JBD, JBTD, and BM with similarity index in the range of 80-89%The first group consist two sub groups of relationship. The first sub group are JBD and JBTD with similarity index of 89%. The second sub group is BM with similarity index of 80%. The second group isPG with similarity index of 65.5%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Antioxidant-rich Nutraceuticals in the Management of High Fat Diet-induced Obesity in Albino Rats

Jude Nwaogu, Ibrahim Babangida Abubakar, Chizoba Maria Udeze, Ukperoro Uyoyo Jeremiah

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i130184

Background: Obesity, a metabolic disorder caused by an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure, is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD) and some types of cancer. This research was designed to investigate the effect of antioxidant rich- nutraceuticals in the management of high fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

Method: Induction of obesity was achieved by feeding rats with a formulated high fat diet (HFD) for ten (10) weeks. Rats were subsequently group administered 250mg/kg body weight and 500mg/kg body weight of the nutraceutical respectively while apple cider vinegar of 5ml/kg body weight was administered to the standard group.       

Result: Supplementation showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in the glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol, malondialdehyde and increased in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and antioxidant status as compared with untreated high fat diet groups. However, there was no significant difference between supplementation of 500mg/kg and the standard group treated with 5ml/kg of Apple cider vinegar.

Conclusion: Antioxidant rich nutraceuticals could provide a protective effect against oxidative stress in obesity and remedy complications associated with obesity by reversing the damage to near normal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Variations in Haematological Indices of Local and Exotic Turkeys Inoculated with Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium Vaccine

Oluwafemi David Oguntade, Babatunde Moses Ilori, Olutunde Samuel Durosaro, Adesanya John Abiona, Clement Ebanehitah Isidahomen, Michael Ohiokhuaobo Ozoje

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i130185

Infection due to Salmonella spp is one of the threatening diseases to poultry industry because it can cause economic losses through mortality, morbidity and reduction in egg production. One hundred and sixty poults comprising 80 local and 80 exotic (Nicholas white) were used to examine the variations in haematological response to Salmonella spp in local and exotic turkeys inoculated with attenuated Salmonella spp. Both genotypes were reared separately on deep litter, under the same management practices and wing tagged for proper identification. At 7th week of age, 1ml of blood sample was collected from each turkey into anticoagulant tubes and labeled accordingly for base-line haematological analysis. The turkeys were inoculated at 8th week by subcutaneous injection of attenuated Salmonella vaccine at 0.5ml per turkey. On the 2nd and 7th days after inoculation, 1ml of blood samples was collected from each turkey for haematological analyses. The un-coagulated blood was used to determine packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) and its differential counts, and haemoglobin (Hb). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated. The haematological data collected were analyzed using General Linear Model of SAS 9.0 software. The exotic turkey had higher (p<0.05) values of PCV (38.13±1.01), Hb (12.77±0.33gd/l), MCV (133.39±0.14fL) and MCH (43.35±1.27pg/cell) before inoculation. On 2nd day post inoculation, the local turkey had higher (P<0.05) values of PCV (43.93±1.40%), RBC (3.98±0.12 106µl-1) and Hb (14.56±0.47gd/l). Also, on the seventh day post inoculation, the local turkey had higher (P<0.05) values of PCV (42.13±1.20%), WBC (11.94±0.62 103-1), Hb (14.09±0.38 gd/l) and MCH (40.65±0.34pg/cell). The mean values of PCV, Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC of local turkeys were higher (p<0.05) on the 7th day than on the 2nd day post inoculation, while the RBC was higher (P<0.05) on the 2nd day post inoculation. The WBC, MCV and MCH values were higher (p<0.05) in exotic turkey on the 2nd day post inoculation. The local turkey showed quick haematological response to Salmonella vaccine especially post inoculation. Therefore, the local turkey could be said to have stronger potential to survive under disease prevailing environment than the exotic turkey.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction, Purification and Characterisation of Plant Enzyme (Calotropain) from the Unripe Pods and Bark of Sodom Apple (Calotropis procera (AIT))

Amoah Ofori Obed, Hilary D. Zakpaa, Amoah Theophilus, Saeed Ibn Idris Kofi Yeboah, Essandoh Prince

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 30-36
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i130186

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential Extraction, Purification and Characterisation of Calotropain from the unripe pods and stem bark of Calotropis procera for establishing its applications in food industry.

Methodology: Crude extracts were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and two-step salt precipitation. A One-way ANOVA analysis was used to determine the significant difference between the two methods at 5% significance level.

Results: The results obtained from the study inferred that proteolytic activity was present in both plant part extracts. The protein concentrations of the sample crude extracts were 0.86 mg/ml and 0.92 mg/ml for stem bark and pods respectively. The protein concentrations after ammonium sulphate precipitation were 0.57 mg/ml and 0.69 mg/ml for stem bark and pods respectively. The protein concentrations after two-step salt precipitation were 0.51 mg/ml and 0.61 mg/ml for stem bark and pods respectively. Proteolytic activities of the crude enzyme extracts were 0.038 µmol/min/ml for stem bark and 0.02 µmol/min/ml for pods. Higher values of 0.075 µmol/min/ml and 0.05 µmol/min/ml were calculated for the enzyme extracts for stem bark and unripe pods respectively after ammonium sulphate precipitation and after two-step salt precipitation. The enzyme extracts for stem bark and pods respectively recorded proteolytic activities of 0.099 µmol/min/ml and 0.07 µmol/min/ml.

Conclusion: The outcome of this study showed how the proteolytic activities of the plant parts could be enhanced for protein hydrolytic processes in the production of food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Peroxidation, Lipid Profile Changes and Antioxidant Properties of the Combination of Vernonia amygdalina and Ficus exasperata on the Blood, Liver and Kidney of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Ukperoro Uyoyo Jeremiah, Awarota Ruth Oghogho, Oroye Otsuko, Udeze Maria Chizoba

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 37-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i130187

Background: The use of plants known to possess significant antioxidant activities have been widely recommended in the complementary and alternate system of medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Among the many plant used in Nigeria for the management of DM are Vernonia amygdalina and Ficus exasperata. This study was designed to assess the effect of the combination of the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Ficus exasperata on blood glucose level, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

Method: Twenty five rats were divided into five groups. Four groups were made diabetic by the intra-peritoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight) while the fifth group served as normal control. Serum, hepatic and renal concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as well as the catalase activity were determined. The blood lipid profile and some hepatic enzymes were also studied.

Result: The combined extract lowered lipid peroxidation, increase glutathione concentration and catalase activity in all the tissues of diabetic rats. The individual extract lowered the total cholesterol LDL-Cholesterol, coronary risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI) while increasing the concentration of HDL cholesterol in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes lowered hepatic enzymes’ activities but the leaf extract significantly increased it.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that combination of the extracts showed additive effect on each other and it is highly recommended for the management of diabetes.