Open Access Short communication

The Rhythmic Growth Pattern of Microbes is Antithetical to Antioxidant Activity of Kombucha: A New Finding in Food Biochemistry

Soumya Majumder, Arindam Ghosh, Sourav Chakraborty, Malay Bhattacharya

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i230188

Background: Kombucha is a traditional, popular and probiotic health drink having strong antioxidant properties. Involvement of various bacteria and yeasts in kombucha fermentation have been previously described by several scientists. In this research, we aimed to determine the growth pattern of microbes involved in kombucha fermentation, using the orthodox turbidimetric method and a simultaneous determination of antioxidant activity regularly.

Methods: This experiment was designed in a simple way to evaluate the interrelation between growth of microbes involved in kombucha fermentation and the rate of release of antioxidant molecules using spectrophotometric growth study and DPPH free radical scavenging assay.

Results: In this research, some new characteristics of kombucha have been found regarding microbial fermentation. Moreover, we prepared broths using different types of sugars as carbon source for a comparative analysis.

Significance: In all the broths, it was found that there is a negative correlation between rhythmic microbial growth pattern and antioxidant activity which is definitely a new finding in food science.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Variety and Planting Arrangement on Weed Control and Yield Performance of Transplanted Aman Rice

Vashkar Adhikary, Mehedi Hasan, Ashraful Alam Fakir, Sonia Sultana, Md. Moshiur Rahman, Ahmed Khairul Hasan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i230190

An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during June to November 2016 in order to find out the effect of variety and planting arrangement on weed control and yield performance of transplanted Aman rice. The experiment consisted of four varieties viz., Binadhan-7, Binadhan-12, Binadhan-17 and Binadhan-16 and five planting arrangement viz. 25cm × 20cm, 25cm × 15cm, 20cm × 20cm, 20cm × 15cm and 15cm × 15cm. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications. Results indicated that the highest weed density (90.93 m-2), weed biomass (131.87 gm-2), leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) (40.02), sterile spikelets panicle-1 (76.86) ,% sterility panicle-1 (28.66), grain yield (4.51 t ha-1) and straw yield (4.63 t ha-1) were obtained from Binadhan-17. The variety Binadhan-7 showed the best performance in respect of number of total tillers hill-1 (11.06), number of effective tillers hill-1 (10.12) compared to the other varieties used in the study. The highest leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) (36.48), plant height (99.72 cm), panicle length (22.03 cm), number of total tillers hill-1 (10.21) and number of effective tillers hill-1 (9.45) were found at 25 cm × 20 cm planting arrangement. The highest grain yield (4.31 t ha-1) was recorded from 20cm × 15cm planting arrangement. The interaction between variety and planting arrangement showed numerically higher grain yield (5.38 t ha-1) from Binadhan-7 at 20cm × 15cm planting arrangement, whereas the lowest grain yield (2.61 t ha-1) was achieved from the variety Binadhan-12 at 15cm × 15cm planting arrangement. It can be concluded that Binadhan-7 at 20cm × 15cm planting arrangement may be used for achieving the best yield with less weed interference in Aman season.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Relationship between the Different Ethno-Linguistic Groups of Mezam and Momo Divisions of the North West Region of Cameroon

Ngum Precious Fosah, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i230191

Aim: Although the many ethnolinguistic groups of the Mezam and Momo Divisions of the North West Region of Cameroon are historically known to be related, no genetic study has hider to be conducted to verify the claim. This study was therefore aimed at determining the genetic relationship between the different ethno linguistic groups of Mezam and Momo divisions of north west Cameroon using 6 Y-STR loci.

Materials and methods: Venous blood samples were collected from, at least 30 consented participants from each of 11 ethnolinguistic groups previously identified in the study area. Genomic DNA was isolated and six Y- Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STRs): DYS388, DYS389I DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393, were genotyped using standard techniques and the phylogenetic relationship between these groups established.

Results: Four loci (DYS3891, DYS390, DYS391, and DYS392) had an allele frequency of 1 in all 11 groups and a total of 4 haplotypes were obtained. Haplotype 11-13-21-11-9-10 corresponding to DYS388-DYS389I-DYS390-DYS392-DYS393-DYS391 was the most predominant in all populations.

Conclusion: It is concluded that, all 11 populations included in this study have a common genetic origin, the Bakaka population of Cameroon which correlates with their Bantoid linguistic relatedness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli from Poultry Droppings in Nasarawa, Nigeria

S. C. Tama, Y. B. Ngwai, G. R. I. Pennap, I. H. Nkene, R. H. Abimiku, S. M. Jodi

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 47-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i230192

Aims: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance profile and extended spectrum beta-lactamase resistance genes of Escherichia coli isolated from droppings of from selected poultry farms in Nasarawa, Nigeria.

Study Design: Investigative

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, between November 2019 and February 2020.

Methodology: A total of 90 samples from poultry droppings were collected from selected farms. Escherichia coli was isolated from the samples using standard cultural and microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentrations were evaluated as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in E. coli isolates was carried out using double disc synergy test.  In addition, molecular detection of ESBL genes was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method.

Results: The prevalence of E. coli was 100%. Antibiotic resistances of E. coli were recorded as follows: streptomycin (S: 94.4%), sulphamethoxazole / trimethoprim (SXT: 90.0%), ampicillin (AMP: 88.9%), gentamicin (CN: 68.9%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC: 55.6%), ciprofloxacin (CIP: 41.1%), cefoxitin (FOX: 35.6%), ceftazidime (CAZ: 34.4%), cefotaxime (CTX: 22.2%), and imipenems (IPM: 17.8%). The most common antibiotic resistant resistance phenotype was AMP-CTX-CAZ-CIP-CN (11.1%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was observed in 97.7% (88/90) of the isolates, with the common MAR index being 0.5 (33.3%). Twenty five of the thirty beta-lactam resistant isolates (83.3%) were confirmed ESBL producers. The 25 ESBL positive isolates carried bla genes as follows: blaTEM (11/25, 44.0%) and blaCTX-M (18/25, 72.0%). blaSHV was not found in any isolate.

Conclusion: E. coli isolated from the droppings of selected poultry farms in Nasarawa were less resistant to imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoxitin in the study location. This implies that the antibiotics are useful in the treatment of infection caused by E. coli. Also, ESBL-positive E. coli isolates harbored ESBL genes, with blaCTX-M as the most common.

Open Access Review Article

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Vitiligo: Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Aspects

Hassan Mohammed Ibrahim, Essam El-din Abd El-Aziz Nada, Soheir Abdel-Hamid Ali, Eisa Mohamed Hegazy, Mohammed H. Hassan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 8-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i230189

Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder that is characterized by a gradual loss of skin pigmentation when melanocytes, the skin's pigment-producing cellsis lost. Pathogenicmechanisms are not well understood. Genetic, abnormal biochemical pathways, autoimmune, melanocyte adhesion deficits and nervous system imbalances are among the pathogenic triggers. Vitiligo lesions have  also been shown to have macrophage infiltration.Macrophagemigration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a lymphokine that concentrates macrophages at inflammatory sites and is involved in cell-mediated immunity.MIF enhances chemotaxis and macrophage infiltration and upregulates inflammatory responses by inducing the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2.Therapyfor vitiligo includes corticosteroids, immunomodulatory agents, vitamin D nalogues, antioxidants, phototherapy, laser and surgical therapy.However, no single treatment for vitiligo produces consistently good results and treatment response is variable.  Narrow-band ultraviolet (NB-UVB, 311–313nm) phototherapy is viewed as backbone of treatment. Systemic therapies such as systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate were previously used to treat vitiligo which was assumed to be auto-immune nature.Pathogenic mechanisms, role of MIF and various treatment guidelines are discussed in this review