Open Access Original Research Article

Synergistic Effect of Coconut Water and Garlic Tincture on Lipids and Oxidative Profile of Albino Rats Treated with High Fat Diet and Alcohol

Holy Brown, Davies G. Tamuno-Emine, Omuruka Sweeten

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i330193

Aim: This study evaluated the combined effect of coconut water and garlic tincture on lipid and antioxidants profile of albino rats fed with high fat diet and alcohol.

Study Design: This study is a non-randomized experimental study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Rivers State University Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, the study was done between 20th November, 2018-30th June 2019.

Methodology: A total number of 45 Wister albino rats were used with the weight ranged from 120-200 grams. The animals were grouped into two major groups, the control Group A and the test Group B. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture into heparinized bottle for standard laboratory investigation of lipid profile, and Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and Malondialdehide (MDA). Plasma SOD and MDA were determined using ELISA methods, TAC was determined using FRAP Colorimetric method while lipid profile were determined using enzymatic method.

Results: The results revealed that, alcohol induced oxidative stress group exhibited significant differences in MDA levels amongst the groups, and no significance differences in SOD and TAC levels as compared with negative control groups. There were significant differences in the Total Cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels, amongst the groups. However, these changes appear to improve with coconut water and garlic tincture treatment. Treatment with coconut water alone following 30% alcohol treatment, showed a significant decrease in MDA level, no significant increase in SOD and TAC. Similar observation was recorded for the garlic tincture treatment alone. Treatment with low dose of combined coconut water with garlic tincture following 30% alcohol treatment, shows significant decrease in MDA level, significant increase in SOD, no significant increase in TAC. Treatment with low and higher doses of combined coconut water with garlic tincture following HFD treatment showed similar results, no significant decrease in TG levels, a significant decrease in MDA, TC and LDL levels, a significant increase in TAC and HDL levels and no significant increase in SOD. However, no difference was observed at higher dose. Histological findings revealed changes in hepatocellular architecture, such as inflammatory cell aggregates, dilation of sinosidal space, fatty droplet after treatment with alcohol and high fat diet. However, upon garlic tincture and coconut water treatment, there was amelioration of these abnormalities.

Conclusion: The mixture of coconut water and garlic tincture seem to exerted an antioxidant and antiatherogenic effect on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and HFD-induced dyslipidaemia in rats. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical effects of Short–long Term Extensive Administration of Monosodium Glutamate and Soybean on Wistar Rats

A. Bob-Chile Agada, N. Nwachukwu, C. O. Ibegbulem, A. C. Ene

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 14-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i330194

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged and excessive consumption of soybean and monosodium glutamate on blood glucose, insulin, and liver function. The quantitative and qualitative determination of oestrogen-like compounds was carried out by chromatography. A total of two hundred and ten (210) Wistar rats (70 – 78g) were divided equally into three groups representing the various experimental durations (2, 4, and 6 months). Each of these groups was further sub-divided equally into fourteen (14) subgroups (7 groups for male rats and 7 groups for female rats). Out of the 7 groups for both the male and female rats, a group represented the control rats only fed commercial rat chow and water, whereas the rest were orally administered any of the 1000 mg/kg b.w (low dose), 2000 mg/kg b.w (medium dose), or 3000 mg/kg b.w (high dose) of aqueous extract of monosodium glutamate or soybean. Diadezein (42.63 mg/100g), and genistein (28.49 mg/100g) were the two most abundant oestrogen-like compounds. After 6 months administration the high dose (H.D) MSG and soybean, significantly altered the blood glucose and insulin levels of both the male and female rats. The liver enzymes levels of the female rats were significantly elevated after 2 months of administration of H.D MSG and soybeans. All the doses of soybean administered for 6 months significantly elevated the liver enzyme levels compared to the control. The administration of H.D MSG for 4 and 6 months significantly increased the total bilirubin levels of female rats while no significant changes were observed following soybeans administration. For the male rats, no significant changes were observed on the total bilirubin levels after the administration soybeans, whereas H.D MSG for 2 months significantly increased the total bilirubin levels (12.00 µmol/l) compared to the control (8.60 µmol/l). This study has shown that regardless of the presence of medicinal compounds in soybeans, excessive prolonged intake compromises the functional integrity of the liver while MSG even at minimal doses poses serious health risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Heavy Metals and Anti – Nutrients in Cow Meat Sold in Minna, Major Markets

Suleiman I. Onuruoiza, Suleiman A. Itopa, Jwan’an L. Emmanuel, Adebiyi H. Yetunde, Aderemi O. Cornelius, Habakkuk Hebron

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i330196

Introduction: Meat is a major source of protein for the urban – population, but it could be susceptible to contamination by heavy metals, heavy metals and anti - nutrients pose a serious threat to human well being due to thier toxicity and chelating activity, this call for the need to determine thier level in meat which is one of our daily food.

Objectives: This study is designed to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Lead, Chromium, Cupper, Cadmium, and Zinc) and anti-nutrients (Phytate, Oxalate and cyanogenic glycoside) in cow meat sold in different locations in Minna, Niger State.

Method: A total of 12 beef samples were bought from beef outlet in 4 major markets in Minna namely Bosso Market, Kure Market, Mobil Market, and Tunga Market. The level of the heavy metals were assayed using Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS) while that of anti – nutrients were determined using standard analytical methods.

Results: Show that the concentration of Lead is highest across all locations while that of Zinc is the lowest across all locations. The order of the level of heavy metal concentration across the locations are Pb > Cd = Cu >Cr > Zn. Lead (Pb) concentrations across the four markets are 6.340±1.3562µg/g, 6.766±0.3684µg/g, 6.057±1.2097µg/g, 3.716±0.247µg/g respectively, while that of zinc are 0.310±0.0061µg/g, 0.304±0.0023µg/g, 0.298±0.0227µg/g, 0.299±0.0180µg/g respectively.

Conclusion: Results from this study indicate that heavy metal toxicity could result from the consumption of cow meat from these study areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Secondary Metabolites Identification and Antioxidant Activity Determination of Crude Extract of Barringtonia asiatica l. (kurz) Leaves

Rega Permana, Aulia Andhikawati

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 51-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i330197

Aims: The aims of this study were to elucidate the pythochemical compounds from the leaf of mangrove (Barringtonia asiatica L. (Kurz) colleceted from the coast of Pangandaran Regency, West Java, Indonesia as well as its antioxidant activity profile.

Study Design: The study was designed experimentally with two replication (duplo) for the extraction preparation and analyzed statistically using regression linear for the determination of Inhibition Concentration at 50% or IC50.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample were collected from the mangrove ecotourism site at Pangandaran Regency, West Java, Indonesia. The experimental study was performed at the Tropical Marine and Fisheries Laboratory, Fisheries Department, PSDKU Padjadjaran University, Indonesia.

Methodology: The identification of pythochemical contents of the leaf was carried out qualitatively with the principle of formation of precipitate, color and foam. The extraction was performed accordingly using three different types of solvent, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Lastly, the antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH (1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method and IC50 were analyzed subsequently.

Results: Based on the results of the research that has been carried out, it can be concluded that the leaves of Barringtonia asiatica L. (Kurz) contain bioactive compounds in the form of tannins and saponins. The methanol extract of Barringtonia asiatica L. (Kurz)  was proven to have moderate strength antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 125.87 ppm.

Conclusion: this results concluded that different geographic region can influence the phytochemical constituent of the of Barringtonia asiatica L. (Kurz). Furthermore, this doesn’t hindered its antioxidant activity potential as it still proven to have a relatively medium antioxidant activity.

Open Access Review Article

Promiscuous Bioactivty of Phytochemicals

Ogochukwu Jennifer Umezinwa, Muhammad Alfa Ma’ali, Mohammed Yakubu Manbe, Ugwu Obiora Celestine, Nwankwo Ukechi Joy, Augustine Odibo, Abdullahi Alausa

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 28-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i330195

Phytochemicals are broad, largely studied compounds isolated from plants, generally regarded as a research compound than a nutritive molecule. In recent times, the pharmaceutical industry employs plants in the synthesis of novel drugs and active ingredients. These drugs and ingredients effectively manage neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, cancer, obesity, and other chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it still remains to be elucidated, the therapeutic strategies in synthesizing novel compounds. In this review, we discuss the major classification of phytochemicals, in addition to its biochemical mechanism of action. Furthermore, this study detailed the biosynthetic cascade of various phytochemicals and explained the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism on various disease processes. Therefore, this review discusses the multifunctional bioactivity of phytochemicals.

GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

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