Open Access Original Research Article

Sub-fractions from Carica Papaya Seed Extracts Can Prevent Potassium Bromate- induced Changes in Activities of Renal Brush Border Membrane Enzymes and Some Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Kidney of Rats

M. A. Kanadi, A. J. Alhassan, A. I. Yaradua, A. Nasir, A. M. Wudil

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i430198

Aim: To investigate the effect of the chromatographic fractions of Carica papaya seed on KBrO3 –induced reduction in the activities of renal brush border membrane (BBM) marker enzymes and the changes in activities of some enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the kidney of rats.

Study Design: twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, five rats per group; normal control, KBrO3 control, papaya fraction control and KBrO3 group administered with 126mg/kg body weight of the most active fraction of partially purified methanol extract of C. papaya for 48 hours.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.

Methodology: The activities of renal BBM marker enzymes: γ-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, maltase and leucine aminopeptidase were assayed in homogenates of renal cortex and medulla, and in brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) isolated from cortex using standard methods. Furthermore, activities of the following enzymes representing different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism were determined in renal homogenates: hexokinase (HK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6P), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (ME).

Results: KBrO3 administration significantly (P<0.05) decreases the activities of all the BBM marker enzymes in renal homogenates and BBMV. It also decreases the activities of MDH, G6P, FBP and G6PD, and significantly increases (P<0.05) that of HK, LDH and ME in renal homogenates however co-administration of most active fraction of C. papaya  seed prevented all the KBrO3 -induced changes in these biochemical parameters.

Conclusion: Chromatographic fractions of C. papaya seed extract possesses potent phytochemicals that could prevent KBrO3 –induced reduction in activities of renal BBM marker enzymes and the changes in enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism studied and therefore could be analyzed further to isolate the bioactive compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Purify and Characterization of Lectin from the Seeds of Artocarpus Species

S. Krupa, K. R. Siddalinga Murthy

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i430199

Aim: To isolate, partially purify and characterize lectin from the seeds of Artocarpus  species - using ammonium sulphate, gel-filtration and ion exchange chromatography. 

Methodology: ABO blood groups were screened for the assay of hemagglutinating property with seed lectins of both. heterophyllus and A. hirsutus. The seed lectins were extracted using suitable buffer system pH 7.0 and partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatographic techniques.

Results and Discussion: Lectins were extracted from the defatted seed powders of A. heterophyllus and A. hirsutus. The extracts were used for optimization of assay buffer for hemagglutination activity and 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.8 containing 1 mM CaCl2 and 1 mM MnCl2 showed greater hemagglutinating property. Screening for optimum concentration of RBCs from different blood group (A, B, AB and O groups) indicated O group at 10 % concentration as ideal for the assay of hemagglutinating property with seed lectins of both A. heterophyllus and A. hirsutus.

Conclusion: In this study, lectin from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus hirsutus were isolated and partially purified. The isolated lectins were characterized for their heamagglutination activity. Among the human blood types (A+, B+, AB+ and O+) used, all the blood groups showed agglutination while greater agglutination was observed with O+ blood group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Aqueous Extract of Leaf Psidium guajava and Its Effect on Some Haematological Parameters

M. I. Uneze, D. N. Azionu

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i430200

Various parts of psidium guajava linn are used in ethnomedicine in controls and treatments of different disorders such as liver, heart, and blood related disorders [11]. This research work investigate qualitative phytochemical composition of ethanol leaf extract of psidium guajava linn and its effect on some hematological parameters in albino rats. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed by standard procedures. A total of 20 adult male albino rats were used, they were randomly placed into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) each group containing 4 rats groups A, B, C, and D were administered, via oral intubation, the extract at doses of 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively of the extract for 7 consecutive days. Phytochemical screening shows that the extract was rich in tannins anthraquinones, and flavonoid while alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and glycoside were slightly present. There was a decrease in the average body weight, physical activities, and feed and water intake of the rats in the test groups relative to the control hemoglobin concentrate, total white blood cell and packed cell volume recorded in the groups  administered the extract were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the control this effect on  the haemotological parameters was found to be dose dependent. The findings of this study suggest that the aqueous extract of the fruit plants may be useful in control and treatment of blood related disorders.  These useful applications may be as a result of the phytochemical present in the extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Ocimum gratissimum Leaf Extract on Diabetic Rats

Na’ima Musa Sani, Abdulhamid Abubakar, Nwagu Jude

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 25-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i430201

Aims: Ocimum gratissimum is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used in the management of many diseases including diabetes mellitus. The aim of this research was to evaluate hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts on diabetic rats.

Study Design: Mention the design of the study here.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Between february 2021 and June 2021.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures. The extract was administered orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days) to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Hypoglycemic effects, change in body weight, lipid profile and antioxidant activities of diabetic rats treated with the extract were assessed and compared with normal, diabetic control and standard drug treated rats. Histological examination of the pancreas during 21 days of treatment was also carried out.

Results: The extract produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Significant differences were also observed in body weights, serum lipid profile and levels of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes of Ocimum gratissimum methanol extract treated diabetic rats, when compared with diabetic, normal and standard drug treated rats. Histopathological studies of the pancreas showed comparable regeneration of the cells by extract which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum exhibit significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The extract could be further processed towards the management of diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: Ocimum gratissimum extract showed a promising good hypoglycemic effect, the extracts also exhibit hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities on diabetic rats. There was regeneration of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Therefore at acute dose the extracts can serve as an alternative in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs1044925 in Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase-1 Gene on Plasma Lipid Parameters in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

Johnson Oshiobugie Momoh

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v8i430203

Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) catalyzes the synthesis of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and fatty acyl-CoA in tissues and the enzyme plays a major role in atherosclerosis and cellular cholesterol homeostasis. The study shows the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1044925 in acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene on plasma lipid parameters in patients with ischemic stroke. 100 patients with ischemic stroke and 100 controls matched for sex and aged 46-87 were selected for the study. Lipid profiles were measured using Randox kits and lipoprotein ratios were calculated using Excel software. The genotyping of the acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 rs1044925 SNP were performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) combined with 2% gel electrophoresis. There were significant difference (P<0.05) in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP between the normolipidemic and patients with ischemic stroke. The frequencies of AC, CC and AA genotypes of the ACAT-1 gene were 33%, 3% and 64% for the control and 57%, 5% and 38%, for the stroke subjects respectively. The frequencies of C and A alleles were 19.50% and 80.50% for the control and 33.50% and 66.50% for the ischemic stroke subjects (P < 0.0001) respectively. The effects of genotypes on plasma lipid profiles and lipoprotein ratios were found for both control and stroke subjects. The A allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP had lower plasma TG, TC, VLDL-C and other lipid parameters as compared to the C allele carriers for both subjects. The C allele carriers were responsible for the increase in dyslipidemia for both subjects. The results of this study show that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene as effect on plasma lipid profiles and lipoprotein ratios in ischemic stroke patients.