Open Access Minireview Article

Antibacterial Compounds from Microorganisms Isolated from Deep Sea Sediment: A Mini Review

Rega Permana, Aulia Andhikawati

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i130205

The search for new antibacterial compounds using sources derived from marine biota is interesting to develop, considering that Indonesia has diversity of a very large microorganisms and has the potential to produce antibacterial substances. One of the microbial resources that has not been widely exploited is the microorganisms present in deep sea sediments. The deep sea has variations in the availability of nutrients, light, oxygen, concentration, pressure, salinity, and temperature. This condition also triggers marine microorganisms to develop unique physiological abilities. The physiological ability of deep sea microorganisms not only to survive, but also has an impact on their ability to produce unique metabolites that are not owned by terrestrial microorganisms. Here we will review some reported study on the search of antibacterial compounds from microorganisms isolated from the deep sea sediment. The fundamental basic of antibacterial will be discussed followed by several reported antibacterial compounds from the sediment bacteria. This opens door for the search of new microorganisms that produced new chemical compounds with beneficial application in human health as well as in other field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Cymbopogon citratus and Ximenia Americana Leaf Extracts Against Some Selected Bacterial and Yeast Clinical Isolates

A. U. Hassan, A. H. Madu, U. O. Ozojiofor, A. H. Galadanci, I. B. Mato, R. Jafaru

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i130204

Increasing emergence of resistance to antibiotics by pathogenic microorganisms worldwide necessitates the need for finding new antimicrobial agents with minimal resistance and side effects. This study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical content and antimicrobial activities of two ethno-medicinal plants namely: Cymbopogon citratus and Ximenia Americana. Methanol and aqueous were used as solvent for a soxhlet and aqueous percolation extraction techniques to obtain the crude extracts of the named plant parts. Tannins, steroids, reducing sugars, tritapenoids and Flavonoids were found present in these plant extracts. GC-MS analysis done in this study indicates the presence of some basic phenolic compounds, such as; Cyclohexane-1-3,5-trione & 2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone, in the C. citratus extract and methyl guanidine & 3-meyhylheptyl acetate in the X. americana extract, which have been attributed with numerous antimicrobial effects onmicrobial pathogens. Using an agar well diffusion bioassay technique the C. citratus extracts shows; both the extracts are active against E. coli and P. aeroginosa. While X. americana extracts shows a higher activity against C. albican. However the MIC/MBC/MFC of all the extracts shows that known of the extracts has an active viability below 12.5µg/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Mineral Composition, Phytochemical Analysis, and Antioxidant Activity of Fig Trees (Ficus spp.) Leaf Powder

C. O. Osowe, O. P. A. Olowu, O. A. Adu, O. D. Oloruntola, C. A. Chineke

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i130206

Aim: This study aims to analyse and characterise the leaf powder of Ficus carica, Ficus exasperata, and Ficus thonningii.

Methodology: Ficus carica, Ficus exasperata, and Ficus thonningii leaf powder were analysed quantitatively for proximate, phytochemicals, minerals, and antioxidant activity.

Results: The ash, crude protein, and nitrogen free extract concentration were significantly (P<0.05) higher in Ficus carica leaf powder than the rest Ficus species under study. However, the crude fiber and crude fat concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in Ficus thonningii and Ficus exasperata leaf powder, respectively. The concentration of tannins, flavonoids, phenols, and saponins was higher (P<0.05) in Ficus exasperata than other Ficus species under study. However, the concentration of the alkaloids was higher (P<0.05) in Ficus carica leaf powder than Ficus exasperata and Ficus thonningii leaf powder. The Zn and P were higher (P<0.05) in Ficus carica than the rest F. species under study. The Fe contents of F. carica and F. exasperata leaf powders were higher (P<0.05) than F. thonningii leaf powder. The Ca contents of F. carica leaf powder and F. thonningii leaf powder were higher (P>0.05) than F. exasperata leaf powder. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate value was higher (P<0.05) in Fiscus exasperata leaf powder than F. carica and F. thonningii. However, the value of vitamin c was higher (P<0.05) in Ficus carica, compared to the rest F. species.

Conclusion: This study reveals that the leaf powder of F. carica, F. exasperata, and F. thonningii contains a significant number of minerals and phytochemicals with high antioxidant activity and could be employed as a natural feed supplement in animal nutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Activity of Gardenia aqualla Stem Bark Methanol Extract

Michael Anyekema, Lesley Sahber Kindzeka, Aristide Dzelamonyuy

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i130207

Aim: This study was aimed at examining the antimicrobial and wound healing activities of Gardenia aqualla stem bark methanol extract (GASBME) in order to provide scientific basis for its antimicrobial and wound healing properties.

Methodology: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and antimicrobial activity determined using some pathogenic micro-organisms were evaluated following its wound healing effectiveness in Wistar rats using the model of superficial skin excision wound. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnet’s t-test.

Results: The results of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, tannins, alkaloids with anthraquinones being absent. The extract showed antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi and significant (p< 0.05, p< 0.001) decrease in wound measurement by the 11th day.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GASBME possesses antimicrobial activity with wound healing properties that justifies the ethno-medicinal use of the plant in wound/ulcer healings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Studies of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Wister Albino Rats

Mustapha Sahabi Aliyu, Yahaya Ibrahim, Alhassan Yunusa Dada, Sadiq Abubakar Sifawa

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i130208

Aim: The aim is to evaluate the toxicological profiles of methanol stem bark extract of E. camaldulensis (MSEEC) on Wister albino rats.

Methods: Acute toxicity study was conducted according to OECD, 2001. The rats were grouped into six groups of one rat each and were given single oral dose 5000 mg/kg of the extract.  A total of 30 albino rats of both sex were used for the toxicological study. The rats were divided into five (5) groups of six (6) rats. Control group (group 1) received distilled water orally 1 ml/kg. Groups (2-5) received doses of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg of the extracts. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. 

Results: The LD50 of MSEEC was greater than 5000mg/kg. The sub-chronic doses of 500-2000 mg/kg of the extract shows no significant (P>.05) difference of the hematological parameters when compared to the control. The Serum biochemical parameters were no significant (P>.05) compared to the control. However, there was an increase in creatinine level at doses 500, 1500 and 200 mg/kg.

Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that administration of methanol stem bark extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis did not produce significant toxic effect.