Effects of Turmeric Rhizome Powder Supplemented Diet on Indomethacin-induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats
Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology,
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) L rhizome powder (TRP) was commonly reported to have antiulcerogenic and non-toxicity effects. However, the scientific evidence showing the effectiveness of turmeric in the treatment of gastric ulcer and its non-toxicity effect are controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different percentages of turmeric rhizome powder supplemented diet on toxicity induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats. This study investigated the effects of TRP formulated diet on the activities of blood enzymes in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerated Wistar rats. This investigation was carried out through a 28-day experiment using corn-starch flour meal-based diet containing four levels of TRP (1%, 2%, 5% and 10%) as treatments with five replicates in a completely randomized design. The remaining three groups were fed with basal diet, one group received standard drug, another received no treatment but induced while the last group received no treatment and not induced. 35 male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were housed in seven cages and received feed and water ad-libitum. At the end of the experiment, all the animals were sacrificed, blood and some organs were collected and evaluated for hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by indomethacin (60mg/kg bw). Measurements of serum, kidney and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were performed. Statistical evaluation of the results at a p < 0.05 showed significantly elevated values (P ≤ 0.05) of these enzymes in the kidney of rats in groups B, C, E and G when compared with group F. Increase in kidney ALT and AST activities of animals in groups A, C and D was detected in comparison with group F. Furthermore, there was increase in hepatic ALT and ALP activities of animals in groups A, B, C, D and E compared with animals in group F but a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in group G in comparison with group F. Likewise, there was significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in liver AST activities of rats in groups A, B, C, E and G compared with group F, however, insignificant increase (P ≤ 0.05) was observed in animals in group D in comparison with rats in group F. Indomethacin induced rats (group F) showed a significant increase in serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with rats in groups E and G in all the groups but those fed on 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% turmeric supplemented diet showed decrease in comparison with group F. The increased levels of these enzymes in the serum of animals in ulcerogenic group and some in group D (10%TRP group) could be a sign of tissue injury due to relative toxicity of indomethacin induction in animal model and deleterious effect of turmeric rhizome powder at large concentration. However, decrease levels of these enzymes in pretreated groups could indicate the attenuating potential of turmeric at moderate dose against toxicity effect of indomethacin induction. Therefore, turmeric rhizome powder should be consumed with caution and its percentage in the whole recipe should not be up to 10% (100g/kg).