Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Turmeric Rhizome Powder Supplemented Diet on Indomethacin-induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats

A. G. Oluwafemi, O. B. Ajayi, O. A. Oseni, S. F. Akomolafe

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i330216

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) L rhizome powder (TRP) was commonly reported to have antiulcerogenic and non-toxicity effects. However, the scientific evidence showing the effectiveness of turmeric in the treatment of gastric ulcer and its non-toxicity effect are controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different percentages of turmeric rhizome powder supplemented diet on toxicity induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats. This study investigated the effects of TRP formulated diet on the activities of blood enzymes in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcerated Wistar rats. This investigation was carried out through a 28-day experiment using corn-starch flour meal-based diet containing four levels of TRP (1%, 2%, 5% and 10%) as treatments with five replicates in a completely randomized design. The remaining three groups were fed with basal diet, one group received standard drug, another received no treatment but induced while the last group received no treatment and not induced. 35 male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were housed in seven cages and received feed and water ad-libitum. At the end of the experiment, all the animals were sacrificed, blood and some organs were collected and evaluated for hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by indomethacin (60mg/kg bw). Measurements of serum, kidney and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were performed. Statistical evaluation of the results at a p < 0.05 showed significantly elevated values (P ≤ 0.05) of these enzymes in the kidney of rats in groups B, C, E and G when compared with group F. Increase in kidney ALT and AST activities of animals in groups A, C and D was detected in comparison with group F. Furthermore, there was increase in hepatic ALT and ALP activities of animals in groups A, B, C, D and E compared with animals in group F but a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in group G in comparison with group F. Likewise, there was significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in liver AST activities of rats in groups A, B, C, E and G compared with group F, however, insignificant increase (P ≤ 0.05)  was observed in animals in group D in comparison with rats in group F. Indomethacin induced rats (group F) showed a significant increase in serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP compared with rats in groups E and G in all the groups but those fed on 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% turmeric supplemented diet showed decrease in comparison with group F. The increased levels of these enzymes in the serum of animals in ulcerogenic group and some in group D (10%TRP group) could be a sign of tissue injury due to relative toxicity of indomethacin induction in animal model and deleterious effect of turmeric rhizome powder at large concentration. However, decrease levels of these enzymes in pretreated groups could indicate the attenuating potential of turmeric at moderate dose against toxicity effect of indomethacin induction. Therefore, turmeric rhizome powder should be consumed with caution and its percentage in the whole recipe should not be up to 10% (100g/kg).

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Oral Consumption of Action Bitters on Renal Indices of Apparently Healthy Subjects in Port Harcourt Metropolis

Helen A. Waribo, Esther Edamisan, Ibioku Elekima, Ebirien-Agana S. Bartimaeus

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i330217

Action bitters has been seen not to have nephro-toxic effects on the kidney. However, this study evaluated the effects of sachet packaged action bitters on the kidney of apparently healthy subjects. Blood sample was collected from 20 subjects. Basal blood sample and the blood samples collected after 2 hours of intake of action bitters by subjects were analyzed. The parameters analyzed include sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using the colorimetric method of analysis and results subjected further to statistical analysis using the GraphPad Prism Version 8.02.Basal results of the renal indices obtained showed the values to be; 144.16 ± 8.89 mmol/L, 3.81 ± 0.57 mmol/L, 25.70 ± 5.66 mg/dL and 1.05 ± 0.38 mg/dL for sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine respectively while the results obtained from the subjects two(2) hours after the intake of action bitters were; 128.18 ± 11.05 mmol/L, 2.93 ± 0.57 mmol/L, 25.34 ± 4.74 mg/dL and 1.51 ± 0.75 mg/dL for sodium. potassium, urea and creatinine values respectively. The comparison of the basal and treated sample showed significant differences in the values of sodium, potassium and creatinine (P=0.05) while the urea value was not significantly different. The mean value for sodium and potassium in the treated subjects were significantly decreased when compared to the value gotten at the basal state where the action bitter has not been consumed by the subject whereas the creatinine value was significantly increased in the sample of the treated subjects compared to the value of the basal sample. This implies that exposure to a higher dose of action bitters might be detrimental to renal function in the body hence, the dose of bitters and its consumption by humans should be monitored in order to protect against any adverse effect, and subsequent malfunctioning of the kidney.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Eco-Friendly Production of a Novel and Highly Active Endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from Aspergillus clavatus

Thiago Machado Pasin, Ana Sílvia de Almeida Scarcella, Rosymar Coutinho de Lucas, Tássio Brito de Oliveira, Mariana Cereia, Maria de Lourdes T. M. Polizeli

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 20-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i330219

Aims: Here, we describe a novel way to produce an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from Aspergillus clavatus using paper and pulp industry waste.

Methodology:  Optimal Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1 cultivation conditions were evaluated using minimal medium with different concentrations (1 to 10%) of paper sludge pretreated with HCl, during different periods (1 to 14 days), with different pH values (3.0; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5; 6.0; 6.5; 7.0; 7.5 and 8.0), different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 ºC) and different mixing conditions (static and stirring). After that, the enzyme activity was determined by DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid), protein concentration was quantified by Bradford, SDS-PAGE was performed to evaluate the molecular mass, and TLC observed hydrolysis products.

Results: The enzyme showed a molecular mass of 25 kDa, and its production has been highly improved by optimizing culture conditions. The best activity of this enzyme was obtained when A. clavatus was cultivated for 5 days, at 120 rpm, 5% paper sludge, pH 6.0, and 35 ºC. The degradation profile of the beechwood xylan by the crude extract containing the GH11 xylanase showed xylotriose as the main product, but xylotetraose and xylobiose were also produced in significant amounts.

Conclusion: In addition to the fact that this xylanase has the property of producing large quantities of XOS (mainly xylotriose), it has the advantage of being obtained from recyclable waste of the pulp and paper industry. These facts confer great potential for future biotechnological and industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Moringa oleifera Mediated Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and their Characterization and Evaluation of Biological Activities

Syed Bilal Hussain, Hamza Amin, Tahir Naqqash, Muhammad Zubair, Sadaf Noor

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i330220

The green synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted the attention of scientific communities due to their simple, economical, and environment-friendly properties. This study focuses on the biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using an aqueous extract of Moringa Oleifera as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation, structure, and other physical and chemical properties of ZnONPs have been extensively studied using various microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The biogenic synthesis of ZnONPs was confirmed by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer analysis and further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potential antibacterial and antioxidant activity for ZnONPs were also studied. A sharp peak at 450 nm was observed by UV-Vis analysis, while FTIR analysis showed the presence of -O-H-, -C=C-and -C-H- stretching. SEM analysis revealed that ZnONPs were cubic and hexagonal with500 nmto 1µmsize. The results of antimicrobial activity presented that the zone of inhibition of ZnONPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC4617, and Escherichia coli ATCC15224 were in the range of 16-36 mm. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH assay and the IC50 value was 144.59 µg/mL. This study provides an ecofriendly green approach for ZnONPs synthesis with less time and energy consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Heritability, Genes Number and Multivariate Analysis Using Non- segregation and Segregation Generations in Two Cotton Crosses

E. F. El-Hashash, W. M. B. Yehia

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 45-62
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2021/v9i330221

This study was conducted to evaluate the heritability methods, the genes number equations and comparison between them, as well as multivariate analysis of cotton yield and its components traits in the two crosses G.85 x TNB and G.86 x Suvin. Broad sense heritability (BSH) using Mahmud & Kramer (1951), Burton (1951), Weber & Moorthy (1952), Modified Weber & Moorthy (1952), Briggs & Krowles (1967), Mather & Jinks (1971), Lawrence & Jinks (1973) and Kotecha & Zimmerman (1978) methods, as well as narrow sense heritability using Warner (1952) and Modified Warner (1952) methods were calculated. The methods of BSH and NSH showed high values (BSH < 0.60) and significant for yield and yield components traits in the two crosses. For BSH estimations, the highest values by Mahmood & Kramer and Burton methods and the lowest values by Mod.Weber & Moorthy were registered for most studied traits. Estimates of genes number affecting traits were obtained with Chen & Line (1995). The genes number values by equation N3 were much higher than the other equations (close to each other or slightly different) for all studied traits in the two crosses. Based on the ranks method and cluster analysis suggested that there are differences between most the methods of BSH and genes number estimations. The methods of Mather & Jinks and Lawrence & Jinks gave the same values, the two methods of Mahmud & Kramer and Briggs & Krowles as well as the two methods Weber & Moorthy and Kotecha & Zimmerman showed equal or close values for the studied traits in the two crosses. While, the others methods of BSH had difference with these methods and with from each other. These methods are calculated based on the components of variance, so a change in each component of the variance can affect it. Thus, these methods differ with respect to the calculation of an environmental variance. According to principal component analysis (PC), the PC1 and PC2 had mainly distinguished the generations in different groups. The PC1 and PC2 contributed towards 86.29% and 92.36% of cumulative variability in the two crosses G.85 x TNB and G.86 x Suvin, respectively, and the PC1 exhibited Eigen value >1 for all studied traits in the six populations. According to biplot and based on the all populations, the PCs with the highest variability showed positive correlation to yield and its components, but, they differed in their degree of significance/insignificant and consistency in quantity. The PC of the relationship between the six generations revealed that the most appropriate generations for selecting these traits were BC1 generation in the cross G.85 x TNB as well as F2 and BC1 generations in the cross G.86 x Suvin. Backcrossing may be done for 2–5 cycles (BC2 – BC5) at Suvin parent for improving cotton yield in Egypt.