##### Identification of Nosema Sp. Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius by PCR in Benin’s Apiaries

Aude E. Kelomey, Hélène Legout, Angelo C. Djihento, Farid T. Badé, Haziz Sina, Adolphe Adjanonhoun, Lionel Garnery, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v11i230261

The bee A. mellifera L. is a key social insect, for its role in crop pollination and for the products generated in the hives. Nosema sp. Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius belong to the most important pests of A. mellifera Linnaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). The aim of this study was to identify the presence of Nosema Sp., Paenibacillus larvae, and Melissococcus plutonius in Benin’s apiaries by molecular characterization. Thirty-seven bee samples from three districts of Benin (North-East, North-West, and Centre) were analyzed in the study. We used Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests based on 16 S ribosomal RNA and primers specific to each of the parasites of interest to identify them in the bee samples. Data were analyzed with Graphpad prism 8 and Minitab 19. Only N. ceranae belonging to Nosema Sp was found in the tested samples with a rate of 13.51%. This indicates that the nosema parasite is present in the apiaries of Benin. This is the first report of N. ceranae in A. mellifera colonies in Benin. Intensive surveys should be carried out to determine the distribution and prevalence of N. ceranae in the different regions of Benin in order to effectively control this parasite.

##### Evaluation of Some Inflammatory, Cancer Markers and Total Antioxidant Status among Cement Loaders in Port-Harcourt

Jonathan Nyebuchi, Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Ebirien-Agana Samuel Bartimaeus, Stella Urekweru Ken-Ezihwo

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v11i230262

The effect of cement dust has been linked to many diseases but very few studies have been able to study the impact of cement on oxidative stress, inflammation and carcinogenesis in Port Harcourt. Therefore, this study was focus on assessing the effect of cement dust on total antioxidant status (TAS), inflammatory markers and cancer markers among cement loaders in Port Harcourt. The study was conducted in Port Harcourt among 100 cement loaders and 100 non-cement exposed individuals who made up the control group. Upon consenting to participate in the study, subjects were randomly selected for recruitment into the study. Five milliliters of blood was collected from each subject and was assayed for total antioxidant status (TAS) using enzymatic colorimetric method, IL-10, IL-1 $$\beta$$ , Neuron specific Enolase (NSE), C-Reactive protein (CRP), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) using ELISA technique. Results compared TAS, IL-10, IL-1 $$\beta$$ , NSE, CRP and VEGF-A levels between cement exposed group and control group. TAS result revealed that there was a significant decrease between in the exposed group (P-value=0.0011). CRP, result revealed that there was no significant difference between both groups (P-value=0.1103). IL-10, result revealed that there was a significant decrease in the exposed group (P-value=0.0030). IL-1 $$\beta$$ , result revealed that there was a significant increase in the exposed group (P-value=0.0012). VEGF-A result revealed that there was no significant difference between both groups (P-value=0.653). NSE, result revealed that there was a significant increase in the exposed groups (P-value<0.0001). This study has shown that human exposure to cement dust increases oxidative stress, affects inflammatory responses and may increase the risk of cancer among cement workers in Port Harcourt.

##### The Effects of Exercise on Weight among School Children in Amai Ukwuani, Delta State Nigeria

O. J. Eboh, T. Onuoha, M. O. Adeola, G. C. James

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v11i230264

The study was carried out to determine the effect of exercise on the body among primary school pupils in Amai. Fifty school pupils were selected from Gods will school for the study. Twenty-five of the pupils engaged in exercise (jogging of 400 meters) for 10 consecutive days. While the remaining twenty-five pupils did not exercise. The weights of the pupils were taken for the 10 days. The result showed that at the end of day 5, majority of the pupils who exercised reduced weight by at least 1kg and at the end of day 10, no pupils added an extra kg of weight. The mean weight lost by the pupils who exercised was 3.04kg. the result also showed that all the pupils who did not exercise kept on adding weight from Day1 till the Day 10. The mean weight gained by pupils who did not exercise was 3.44kg. However, the body mass index of the pupils indicated that none was overweight or obese. This study has shown that regular physical exercise is an important way of controlling weight. Physical exercise should be a part of the curriculum in all schools as childhood obesity is becoming rampant and an issue of global concern due to its health hazards.

##### Effect of Decryodes edulis (African Black Pear) Aqueous Leaf Extract on Liver Enzyme Markers of Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

S. I. Omeodu, B. M. Aleme, P. O. Uahomo, P. C. Osah

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 48-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v11i230265

Aim: This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Dacryodes edulis (African Black Pear) on liver enzyme markers associated with acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

Method: Qualitative phytochemical screening was done on the aqueous leaves extract of D. edulis and in vivo experiment was carried out afterwards. 20 adult male Wistar rats were used which were randomized into 5 groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 served as the positive control and were fed with rat pellets and water only, Group 2 served as acetaminophen control and were fed with rat pellets and water and then treated with 2 g/kg acetaminophen only, Group 3, 4 and 5 was served 2g/kg acetaminophen and treated with 100mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of stock solution of the plant extract in addition to rat pelleted feed and water ad libitum. The experimental process lasted for 14 days after which blood samples were collected for liver enzyme assay. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparatate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assayed using Randox Kits.

Results: Result obtained revealed that aqueous extract of Dacryodes edulis significantly (p<0.05) reduced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity at a dose dependent rate evident by the reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, Urea and creatinine.

Conclusion: The result showed the hepatoprotective effect of Dacryodesedulis against toxicity induced by acetaminophen induction in the liver and this is due to the phytochemicals present in the leaf part of Dacryodes edulis. Hence, Dacryodes edulis has hepatoprotective potential against acetaminophen liver damage.

##### Biochemical and Genetic Markers in Neurological Trauma and Tumors: Review Article

Omyma Ashraf, Tahia H. Saleem, Bakheet E. M. Elsadek, Ali R. Hamdan, Mohammed H. Hassan

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v11i230260

CNS traumas and tumors are major health problems. They lead to serious health and economic burdens. They are major causes of disability, or death all over the world. Nowadays, the order of causes of trauma-related death has beenchanged from multiorgan affection to CNS trauma. Assessment of severity and predicting the outcome in a patient with a head, or spinal cord injury, is a must. Most of severity assessment scales depend on the clinical data of the patient. Using of biochemical, and genetic markers that have correlations with severity and outcome in CNS trauma is necessary ofand helpful in clinical field. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 is an enzyme that is present in the cytoplasm of neurons, and forms about to 1–2% from the proteins found within the human brain, and it is supposed to be a promising biomarker in neurological diseases especially trauma. Neuroglobin (Ngb), is a protein which is distributed mainly in central and peripheral nervous systems, and it has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. It is an important biomarker in neurological trauma and tumors.CNS tumors have psychological burden beside their health and economic effects as they may affect personality and both physical and cognitive independence. Various types of mutations have a role in pathogenesis of CNS tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme isoform 1 (IDH1) mutations are frequently identified in primary CNS tumors. Aim of this review: is to give an overview about neurological trauma and tumors as being major health problems, and to spot light on biochemical and genetic markers of promising role as regard pathogenesis, diagnosis, or prognosis of such disorders, with more details about UCHL-1, Ngb, and IDH1.