Open Access Systematic Review Article

Antipsychotic Medications and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Pregnant Women with Bipolar Disorder

Kimberly Morton Cuthrell, Milandeep Singh, Marly Villamar, Ushna Shabbir

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 42-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4270

One of the most difficult clinical tasks is treating pregnant women with bipolar disorder. Decisions that patients and physicians make are challenging, and no strategy is without risks nor prevents potential malpractice litigation. There is debate about whether to continue or discontinue antipsychotic medications during pregnancy. While discontinuation of antipsychotics may increase the risk of relapse, continued use of these medications may lead to fetal and maternal adverse outcomes. Some antipsychotics effectively treat symptoms related to bipolar disorder, including manic episodes and mood swings between mania and depression. Though antipsychotics may be useful for the treatment and management of bipolar disorder, the medications are not always favorable and are associated with adverse effects which have influenced some medical professionals to practice defensive medicine for decades that, in some cases, may coincide or conflict with medical ethics. While antipsychotics have a less safe yet effective impact on bipolar disorder in pregnant women, an alternative therapeutic approach such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) should be considered. CBT psychotherapy is an evidence-based practice approach that can be beneficial in the treatment of bipolar disorder in pregnant women while bypassing the associated adverse reactions of antipsychotics. Attention is needed to explore the use and associated risks and benefits of antipsychotic medications during prenatal and postnatal, the debate of whether to continue or discontinue antipsychotic medication during pregnancy, and the role of CBT in the treatment of pregnant women with bipolar disorder. While antipsychotics may have beneficial effects that should not be underscored, the risks associated with the usage of antipsychotics during pregnancy cannot be minimized.

Open Access Minireview Article

New Chemical Dualities Illustrated by Meso and C2 Symmetrical (CTS) Compounds

Dumitru Petru I. Iga

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 15-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4268

The most important relationship between chemistry and genetics is nonetheless the corpuscular nature of their objects, molecules (or atoms) and genes, respectively. On the other hand, one states, without a substantial proof, that philosophy should be one step ahead all sciences. Here is a proof that the reverse can also be true. Two internal enantiomeric halves of meso compounds or the two chiral halves of ­C2 symmetrical isomers constitute pairs of entities suitable to work as duality phenomena in science. Four types of isomers have been identified: (A) meso, (B) C2 symmetrical (CTS), (C) irregular chiral (irrechi) and (D) constitutional (constit.). Meso and CTS are characteristic to plants and microorganisms. Almost all natural micromolecular compounds from vertebrate tissues are asymmetric, i.e. they are constit. isomers. An exception to this rule is meso-inositol, an isomer of hexoses, which are themselves, as their congeners asymmetric. By comparing the real (envisaged) meso isomers of these compounds with the asymmetric ones of vertebrate tissues, the reason for nature selected the latter became quite evident: it is the omission of a suite of structural restrictions. Delivering of meso isomers of natural compounds discloses a huge chemical philosophical potential of this issue. An intrinsic property of meso combinations is their character of dimerism, hence their molecule is formed of two entities that are contrary in a spatial, chemical and optical sense, i.e. good candidates for a duality concept. Moreover, a good deal of material is indicated, i.e. CTS isomers, whose sides are chiral and identical, for a new type of duality in philosophy, strongly expressed in nature by a chemical language.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Amylase Production in Three Fungal Species

F. E. Ekedegba, A. I. Ogbonna, B. M. W. Nwibari, C. T. Okoye, U. S. A. Ogbonna, I. A. Onyimba, J. M. Madu, A. I. Njoku

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4266

Aim: Amylase is an important enzyme that is employed in starch processing industries, used in the hydrolysis of polysaccharides such as starch into simple sugar constituents. In this study, we investigated the abilities of several isolated amylolytic soil fungi to produce amylase.

Materials and Methods: Soil samples collected from the botanical garden, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos was serially diluted and screened for the presence of amylase producing fungi. Optimization studies was performed across different parameters; Incubation period (7 days), different temperatures (25-60°C), different pH (5-9), different starch concentration (0.2-2%), carbon source (sucrose, maltose, lactose).

Results: A total of 15 isolates belonging to 7 genera were isolated. Soil samples were analyzed for their ecological parameters. The plate assay showed that three species T. viride (62mm), P. citrinum (50.25mm), and A. niger (67mm) had the largest zones of clearance and highest amylolytic activity thus were selected for further studies. For submerged fermentation, optimum amylolytic activity was observed at 24 hours of incubation for all three species T. viride (7.92 IU/ml), P. citrinum (5.04 IU/ml), and A. niger (7.00 IU/ml). Maximum enzyme activity was observed at incubation temperature of 45°C (17.10 IU/ml) for T. viride, 50°C (33.60 IU/ml) for P. citrinum, and 50°C (14.30 IU/ml) for A. niger. The maximum enzyme activity was at pH 9 (20.40 IU/ml) for T. viride, pH 11 (18.50 IU/ml) for P. citrinum, and pH 7 (25.80 IU/ml) for A. niger. T. viride and P. citrinum recorded an optimum enzyme activity of 15.40 IU/ml and 13.20 IU/ml respectively when sucrose was used as a carbon source while A. niger recorded an optimum activity of 7.28 IU/ml when maltose was used. Starch concentration of 2% showed the highest enzyme activity of 16.52 IU/ml, 15.4 IU/ml and 14.00 IU/ml, for T. viride, A. niger and P. citrinum, respectively.

Conclusion: Trichoderma viride, Penicillium citrinum, and Aspergillus niger showed potential of producing amylase which is useful in the biodegradation of biological wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-diabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Jathropha tanjorensis

Obioha Kennedy Chinonye, Amah Akuma Kalu, Elendu Melford Uche, Iheukwumere Chinedu Barry

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 10-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4267

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant properties of ethanol leaf extract of Jathropha tanjorensis. Freshly harvested leaves of Jathropha tanjorensis were thoroughly processed into extract. Twenty five (25) adult male wistar rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I was the normal control allowed unrestricted access to food and water only. Group II was the negative control and was induced with diabetes without treatment, Groups III and IV were diabetic rats administered with ethanol leaf extract of Jathropha tanjorensis, while Group V was diabetic rats administered with the standard drug. After treatment had been concluded, animals were sacrificed and blood and tissue obtained were analyzed using standard procedures. A significantly (P<0.05) high blood sugar level was reported for diabetic rats which however was significantly (P<0.05) reversed with oral administration of ethanol leaf extract of Jathropha tanjorensis in a dose dependent manner. The activity of the liver antioxidant enzymes was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in diabetic rats which however was significantly (P<0.05) increased following oral administration of Jathropha tanjorensis leaf extract in a dose dependent manner across treatment periods. In conclusion, the study unveils the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of J. tanjorensis leaf.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Oxidative Stress Level in HIV/AIDS Patients on HAART Treatments

Florence Oremeyi Elujoba, Samuel Oche Odeh, Kemakolam Amadi, Micheal Kehinde Elujoba, Habibu Tijjani, Oto-obong Idah, Nwibo Nkechi Lilian

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4269

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondarily cellular damage of varied severity. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are currently the therapy of optimal considerations for HIV-infected patients.

Aims: The present study was designed to assess the oxidative stress levels in people living with HIV/AIDS on HAART.

Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty (120) patients attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital APIN Centre were recruited for the study following the inclusion criteria. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in blood samples of recruited patients.

Results: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities increased in control patients with no significant difference (p<0.05) compared with HAART. However, significant increases (p>0.05) were observed in reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration of control patients compared with HAART and HAART Naïve patients. More so, significant increase (p>0.05) was observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) of HAART Naïve patients compared with HAART treatment and control. No significant differences (p>0.05) was observed in alanine aminotransferase and creatinine in HAART, HAART Naïve compared with the control patients.

Conclusion: The study indicated that HIV/AIDS positive patients express reduced levels of SOD, and GSH with an increase level of MDA. This could further lead to oxidative stress complications and thus HAART-naïve patients are encouraged to used HAART to prevent further complication that could arise from oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (Art) among Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Okigwe Imo State, Nigeria

E. C. Uloeme, Nwaogwugwu Joel Caleb, Victor C. Nwankwo, C. I. Nosiri

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 60-74
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4271

The antiretroviral medication (ART) compliance of expectant HIV/AIDS patients in Nigeria's Okigwe Imo state was investigated in this study. In particular, the study established the prevalence of HIV among expectant mothers in Okigwe Imo State, Nigeria, identified the behavioral and demographic factors associated with ART adherence, and looked at the obstacles to ART use among expectant mothers in Okigwe Imo State, Nigeria. The study adopted the AIDS risk reduction model by Catania  and Coates, (1990), the pathway of survival model theory by Mosley and Chen (1984) and the health belief model by Rosenstock et al (1950). From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that the extent of the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Okigwe Imo State, Nigeria is low. Also, the findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between demography and ART adherence among pregnant women in Okigwe Imo State, Nigeria. The findings further revealed that there is a significant relationship between behaviour and ART adherence among pregnant women in Okigwe Imo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that PMTCT services should be accessible to every pregnant woman attending antenatal care, either onsite or through a referral to a nearby clinic, to improve coverage. When it comes to locating PMTCT facilities, using a geographic information system can help eliminate inequity and enhance accessibility within states.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antitoxic Effects of Solanum betaceum cav. Peel Skin Extract

Janti Sudiono, Pretty Trisfilha, Debi Agita

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 120-125
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4276

Background: In Indonesia, Solanum betaceum cav is a traditional herbal medicine which their skin is often wasted because not many people known its content.

Aims: To find out the anti-toxic effect of Solanum betaceum cav peel skin ethanol extract on rat’s renal post-carrageenan induction.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental in vivo study.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was done at Animal Research Facilities (ARF) Medical Faculty University of Indonesia, at September to December 2021.

Methodology: The samples used in this research are male white mice, Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) with the body weight 180–220 gram which divided into 5 groups, negative control (saline), positive control (sodium dilcofenac 7mg/kgBW), and Solanum betaceum Cav. peel skin ethanol extract groups (70mg/kgBW, 140mg/kgBW, and 280mg/kgBW).  Mice’s buccal mucosa was injected with Caraagenan 1%. Macroscopic and microscopic observation was done before, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours post caraagenan injection.

Results: Phytochemical test showed that Solanum betaceum Cav. peel skin ethanol extract contains phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and alkaloid. At all doses, anti-toxic effect of Solanum betaceum Cav. peel skin ethanol extract have same healing effectiveness within 48 hours. In positive control, the renal were normal at 48 hours. Meanwhile, the negative control’s healing effectiveness was seen at 72 hours.

Conclusion: The anti-toxic effect of Solanum betaceum Cav. peel skin ethanol extract has effective healing process at all doses in 48 hours post-carrageenan induction without affect rats’ body weight, however with lower intensity than positive control which using dilcofenac as anti-inflammatory drug.

Open Access Review Article

Biochemistry of Corona Virus: An Overveiw

Nwaogwugwu Joel Caleb, Victor Chukwubuike Nwankwo, Nweke Celestine Chimaobi, Ugoaghalam Uche James, Uchenna Samuel Igwe, Aguwamba Chinedu, Faith Nwokoma

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 75-96
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4272

Coronaviruses forma large family of respiratory viruses having positive (+ve)-stranded RNA (C0V).  Their names are derived from the crown-like shape that is present on their them (surface). The new viral strain SARS-CoV-2 was first discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Even though this virus can spread via airborne, direct, and indirect contact, the most typical way of infection transmission is through droplets. Like the other coronaviruses in the same family, it can causeeverything from minor flu-like symptoms like; cold, sore throat, cough, and fever, to very seriousones like; pneumonia and breathing difficulties. It also has the potential to be fatal. The primary constituents make up the coronavirus. For instance, the positive-stranded RNA molecule that the host cell will translate is carried by the endoplasm, cell membrane, and outer globular protein. The transit of substances into and out of the cell is regulated by the cell membrane and membrane protein. One or more of them include the pointed glycoprotein, envelope small membrane protein, hemagglutinin esterase, nucleoprotein, and genomic RNA. The second coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome is the reason for the ongoing coronavirus disease epidemic known as covid-19 pandemic or coronavirus pandemic (SARS-COV-2). It was originally discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) classified the outbreak as a pandemic and a public health emergency of global concern in January 2020 and March 2020, respectively. As of March 7th, 2021, COVID-19, one of the deadliest pandemics in recorded history, had been linked to over 2.59 million fatalities and over 11.7 million confirmed cases. Being vaccination is one of the steps you may take to protect yourself and others from getting infected with COVID-19. Protection from COVID-19 is essential since it can cause severe illness or death in some persons. It takes all the tools at our disposal to stop a pandemic. You can reduce your risk of getting sick or spreading the disease to others by taking additional precautions like wearing masks and avoiding social situations. Combining the COVID-19 vaccine with following the CDC’s recommendations for safeguarding both you and others will provide the best defense against the virus.

Open Access Review Article

Chromium Induced Developments of Diseases and their Inhibitions by Cargos

Ardhendu Kumar Mandal

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 108-119
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4274

The exposure of hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) mainly through the inhalation, skin contact or oral administration by the environmental chromium industrial processes causes the major toxicity-induced health hazardous mortality throughout the world. Though reduced chromium (Cr-III), as an essential micronutrient, is utilized to maintain the normal blood glucose, lipid and protein profiles through the metabolism in the body to activate the action of the hormones such as insulin, the high concentration exposures of Cr-VI and Cr-III cause oxidative stress-induced DNA oxidation and adducts, DNA strand breaks and mutations, DNA-protein cross-links, membrane-lipid peroxidation and reduced/altered antioxidant/immune response activities, leading to cellular damage-related various diseases and the development of malignant cancer.

Applications of different cargos may inhibit Cr-VI or its intermediates-induced cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, or genotoxicity through chromium-chelating and scavenging free radical reactive species, restoring antioxidant and immune response activities or arresting disease-oriented signal transductions or other pathways at cellular and molecular levels. This review mainly demonstrates  the development  of various  diseases by chromium exposure and their inhibitions by cargos.

Open Access Review Article

The Trace Elements of Drinking Water and Longevity Phenomenon

Alexandra Esther Ortega Vilches

Asian Journal of Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Page 97-107
DOI: 10.9734/ajbgmb/2022/v12i4273

The review explores how the level of trace element intake and its retention influence life expectancy and centenarian longevity of the blue zones (longevity hot spots) in Mayang, China in comparison to Ikaria Island. Both Mayang City in China and Ikaria Island have the greatest population of centenarians. Since the beginning of time, mankind has been interested in eternal life, and the answer may exist in these longevity hot spots like Mayang, China and Ikaria Island. Empires and civilizations were built on the promise of a ‘forever life,’ and many fundamental questions provided a basis to explore the trace elements of drinking water and the longevity phenomenon. Such fundamental questions derived from ‘what warranties our existence,’‘what are we made of and ‘can we live forever’ which contribute to the quest for longevity. Though much is known about how some people reach old age compared to those who die relatively young, there is a need to further understand beyond ‘Nature vs. Nurture.’ Since genetics is not the only factor contributing to a long life, there must be other factors such as trace elements that allow humans to become centenarians. Collective results from different studies with a focus on water toxicity levels, nutrient intake, and centenarians’ hair and urine may help determine the common denominator for the phenomenon of longevity, which may significantly contribute to the body of literature.